Association of Sleep Lack with Blood Pressure and Kidney Functions among Young People in Erbil City




Blood pressure, Estimated glomerular filtration rate, Renal function, Serum creatinine, Sleep lack


Short sleep duration could be deemed a risk factor in occurring cardiovascular system and renal physiological malfunctions. Hence, the present study carried out from December 2018 to January 2019, intended to investigate the association between sleep lack with a circulation system and kidney functions among both genders of students (12 females plus 25 males) who have 18–23 years age and attending Salahaddin University-Erbil. The trial included a sleep lack group (sleep duration <6 h). The second group represented as a control (sleep duration >6 h). Blood pressure (BP) (systolic BP [SBP], diastolic BP [DBP], and mean arterial pressure [MAP]) and weights were estimated for both groups. Blood samples were taken to determine serum creatinine utilizing fully automatically biochemical analyzer and also glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was estimated and calculated according to the Cockcroft-Gault equation. The procured results revealed that SBP was elevated in all participants in the sleep lack group as compared to the control group, while no significant change in DBP was perceived. Furthermore, MAP was increased in all volunteers in the sleep-deprived group. The results also demonstrated that the serum creatinine was raised and concomitantly estimated GFR values were elevated in sleep-deprived group as compared to the control group. Pursuant to the receiver operating characteristic curve, serum creatinine can be a risk factor for sleep lack as well. In the light of the current study, it has been concluded that the sleep lack has a role in elevating SBP but not DBP and it was related with hypertension. Furthermore, the results indicated that serum creatinine was significantly increased in students with sleep lack.


Download data is not yet available.


Bogathy, E., N. Papp, L. Tothfalusi, S. Vas and G. Bagdy. 2019. Additive effect of 5-HT2C and CB1 receptor blockade on the regulation of sleep-wake cycle. BMC Neurosci. 20: 14.

Burnier, M., L. Coltamai, M. Maillard and M. Bochud. 2007. Renal sodium handling and nighttime blood pressure. Semin. Nephrol. 27: 565-571.

Caroleo, M., E. A. Carbone, A. Primerano, D. Foti, A. Brunetti and C. Segura-Garcia. 2019. The role of hormonal, metabolic and inflammatory biomarkers on sleep and appetite in drug free patients with major depression: A systematic review. J. Affect. Disord. 250: 249-259.

Coborn, J. E., M. M. Houser, C. E. Perez-Leighton and J. A. Teske. 2017. Role of sex and the environment in moderating weight gain due to inadequate sleep. Curr. Obes. Rep. 6: 397-404.

Garcia-Covarrubias, L., D. R. Valdez, L. A. Bermudez, R. Cordoba, F. J. Avelar, R. M. Villanueva, D. Ortuno, J. C. Hernandez, A. Garcia and I. Castro. 2018. Correlation of the renal cortex volume with the glomerular filtration rate in live donors for renal transplantation. Transplant. Proc. 50: 428-432.

Ghosh, G., K. De, S. Maity, D. Bandyopadhyay, S. Bhattacharya, R. J. Reiter and A. Bandyopadhyay. 2007. Melatonin protects against oxidative damage and restores expression of GLUT4 gene in the hyperthyroid rat heart. J. Pineal Res. 42: 71-82.

Hinz, A., H. Glaesmer, E. Brähler, M. Löffler, C. Engel, C. Enzenbach, U. Hegerl and C. Sander. 2017. Sleep quality in the general population: Psychometric properties of the pittsburgh sleep quality index, derived from a German community sample of 9284 people. Sleep Med. 30: 57-63.

Krause, A. J., E. B. Simon, B. A. Mander, S. M. Greer, J. M. Saletin, A. N. Goldstein-Piekarski and M. P. Walker. 2017. The sleepdeprived human brain. Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 18: 404.

Krause, N. and G. Rainville. 2019. Exploring the relationship between social support and sleep. Health Educ. Behav. 47: 153-161.

Makarem, N., A. Shechter, M. R. Carnethon, J. M. Mullington, M. H. Hall and M. Abdalla. 2019. Sleep duration and blood pressure: Recent advances and future directions. Curr. Hypertens. Rep. 21: 33.

Mchill, A. W., A. J. Phillips, C. A. Czeisler, L. Keating, K. Yee, L. K. Barger, M. Garaulet, F. A. Scheer and E. B. Klerman. 2017. Later circadian timing of food intake is associated with increased body fat. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 106: 1213-1219.

Mcmullan, C. J., G. C. Curhan and J. P. Forman. 2016. Association of short sleep duration and rapid decline in renal function. Kidney Int. 89: 1324-1330.

Park, S. W., S. M. Choi and S. M. Lee. 2007. Effect of melatonin on altered expression of vasoregulatory genes during hepatic ischemia/reperfusion. Arch. Pharm. Res. 30: 1619-1624.

Paul, M. A., G. W. Gray, H. R. Lieberman, R. J. Love, J. C. Miller, M. Trouborst and J. Arendt. 2011. Phase advance with separate and combined melatonin and light treatment. Psychopharmacology. 214: 515-523.

Rimmele, U., M. Spillmann, C. Bartschi, O. T. Wolf, C. S. Weber, U. Ehlert and P. H. Wirtz. 2009. Melatonin improves memory acquisition under stress independent of stress hormone release. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 202: 663-672.

Sasaki, S., E. Yoshioka, Y. Saijo, T. Kita, A. Tamakoshi and R. Kishi. 2014. Short sleep duration increases the risk of chronic kidney disease in shift workers. J. Occup. Environ. Med. 56: 1243-1248.

Seixas, A. A., J. Vallon, A. Barnes-Grant, M. Butler, A. T. Langford, M. A. Grandner, A. R. Schneeberger, J. Huthchinson, F. Zizi and G. Jean-Louis. 2018. Mediating effects of body mass index, physical activity, and emotional distress on the relationship between short sleep and cardiovascular disease. Medicine. 97: e11939.

Spaeth, A. M., D. F. Dinges and N. Goel. 2015. Phenotypic vulnerability of energy balance responses to sleep loss in healthy adults. Sci. Rep. 5: 14920.

Turek, N. F., A. C. Ricardo and J. P. Lash. 2012. Sleep disturbances as nontraditional risk factors for development and progression of CKD: Review of the evidence. Am. J. Kidney Dis. 60: 823-833.

Yamamoto, R., M. Shinzawa, Y. Isaka, E. Yamakoshi, E. Imai, Y. Ohashi, A. Hishida and C. J. Investigators. 2018. Sleep quality and sleep duration with CKD are associated with progression to ESKD. Clin. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 13: 1825-1832.

Yamamoto, R., Y. Nagasawa, H. Iwatani, M. Shinzawa, Y. Obi, J. Teranishi, T. Ishigami, K. Yamauchi-Takihara, M. Nishida, H. Rakugi, Y. Isaka and T. Moriyama. 2012. Self-reported sleep duration and prediction of proteinuria: A retrospective cohort study. Am. J. Kidney Dis. 59: 343-355.



How to Cite

Omar, A. Z., Maulood , I. M., Hamad , K. K., Ali, H. N., Bapir , S. B., & Mahmud , A. M. (2019). Association of Sleep Lack with Blood Pressure and Kidney Functions among Young People in Erbil City. Polytechnic Journal, 9(2), 133-137.



Research Articles