Prevalence of Cigarette and “Waterpipe” Smoking among “Duhok Universities” Students
Keywords:Cigarette, Duhok students cigarette smoking, Water, Waterpipe smoking
Tobacco use is considered one of the largest public health threats facing the world. Waterpipe smoking (WPS) is a customary and cultural method of tobacco consumption in many parts of the world. This study aimed to find the prevalence of smoking among Duhok city University students in Iraq and to assess students’ knowledge regarding smoking. A cross-sectional, self-completed questionnaire-based study was conducted at four Universities in Duhok city. According to the study’s objectives, scientific and literature colleges from each university are selected. The selection of the number of enrolled colleges and departments is proportionate with total university students’ number. The colleges and departments are selected by a simple random sampling method. Descriptive and analytic statistical tools (SPSS-23) were used to assess significant associations. Chi-square test association is used to compare between proportions. The prevalence of cigarette smoking was 23.5% among studied students (41.9% among males and 6.8% among females), and the prevalence of WPS was 33.2% (56.7% among males and 11.8% among females). There is a significant correlation between cigarette smoking and WPS. Most of the students in this study were not well aware of the most harmful effects of smoking. There was a highly statistically significant association between cigarette and WPS. Smoking in males is more prevalent than females. Inclusion of a detailed and separate course in the university curriculum regarding tobacco control and the effects of smoking on health should be made compulsory. This course must be started from the 1st year of academic courses till the time of graduation or conducting health education and extensive counseling on the harmful effect of smoking for all university students.
Abdulateef, D. S., A. J. Ali, D. S. Abdulateef and M. I. G. Mohesh. 2016. Smoking knowledge, attitude, and practices among health care professionals from Sulaymaniyah city/Iraq. Tob. Use Insights. 9: 1-6.
Akl, E. A., S. K. Gunukula, S. Aleem, R. Obeid, P. A. Jaoude, R. Honeine and J. Iran. 2011. The prevalence of waterpipe tobacco smoking among the general and specific populations: A systematic review. BMC Public Health. 2011;11: 244.
Al Mousawi, A. 2014. The prevalence of smoking among Karbala/Iraq University students in Iraq in 2005. Tob. Use Insights. 7: 9-14.
Al-Hemiery, N., R. Dabbagh, M. T. Hashim, S. Al-Hasnawi, A. Abutiheen and E. A. Abdulghani 2017. Self-reported substance use in Iraq: Findings from the Iraqi national household survey of alcohol and drug use, 2014. Addiction. 112(8): 1470-1479.
AL-Naggar, R. A. and F. S. A. Saghir. 2011. Water pipe (shisha) smoking and associated factors among Malaysian University students. Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev. 12(11): 3041-3047.
Al-Numair, K., Barber-Heidal K, A. Al-Assaf and G. El-Desoky. 2007. Water-pipe (shisha) smoking influences total antioxidant capacity and oxidative stress of healthy Saudi males. J. Food Agric. Environ. 5(3 and 4): 17-22.
Amin, T.T., M. A. Amr, B. O. Zaza and W. Suleman. 2010. Harm perception, attitudes and predictors of waterpipe (shisha) smoking among secondary school adolescents in Al-Hassa, Saudi Arabia. Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev. 11(2): 293-301.
Athamneh, L., S. S. Sansgiry, E. J. Essien and S. Abughosh. 2015. Predictors of intention to quit waterpipe smoking: A survey of Arab Americans in Houston, Texas. J. Addict. 2015: 575479.
Bassiony, M. M. 2009. Smoking in Saudi Arabia. Saudi Med. J. 30(7): 876-881.
Brockman, L. N., M. A. Pumper, D. A. Christakis and M. A. Moreno. 2012. Hookah’s new popularity among US college students: A pilot study of the characteristics of hookah smokers and their Facebook displays. BMJ Open. 2(6): 1-7.
Daniels, K. E. 2012. Hookah Pipe Use: Comparing Male and emale University Students’ Knowledge, Risk Perceptions and Behaviors. MSc Thesis. University of Western Cape, South Africa.
Doski, N. A. and S. M. Ahmed. 2016. Awareness of hookah smokers regarding its harmfulness among attendee of cafés in Erbil city. ZANCO J. Med. Sci. 20(2): 1316-1367.
Farshi, S., M. Sedaghat, P. A. Meysami and E. Abdolahi. 2007. The correlation of social and demographic factors with tobacco onsumption among Savojbolagh residents. Tehran Univ. Med. J. 6(Supple 2): 32-40.
Holtzman, A. L., D. Babinski and L. J. Merlo. 2013. Knowledge and attitudes toward Hookah usage among university students. J. Am. Coll. Health. 61(6): 362-370.
Jackson, D. and P. Aveyard. 2008. Waterpipe smoking in students: Prevalence, risk factors, symptoms of addiction, and smoke intake. Evidence from one British University. BMC Public Health. 8: 174.
Jaff, D. and A. Kumar. 2016. The Hookah epidemic: Emerging public health threat in the Kurdish region of Iraq. J. Health Syst. 2(1): 16-18.
Jamal, A., E. Phillips, A. S. Gentzke, D. M. Homa, S. D. Babb, B. A. King and J.L. Neff. et al. 2018. Current cigarette smoking among adults United States. MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 67(2): 53-59.
Jamshed, J., M. M. Khan and Z. Latif. 2017. Cigarette smoking habits among university students: Prevalence and associated factors. Int. J. Public Health Sci. 6(2): 112-117.
Kachel, H., M. A. Ageed, N. H. Omer and M. I. Suleiman. 2018. Prevalence and predictors of tobacco use among school adolescents in Zakho, Kurdistan region of Iraq. Sci. J. Univ. Zakho. 6(3): 74-77.
Kim, S. 2012. Smoking prevalence and the association between smoking and sociodemographic factors using the Korea national health and nutrition examination survey data, 2008 to 2010. Tob. Use Insights. 5: 17-26.
Korn, L. and R. Magnezi. 2008. Cigarette and Nargila (water pipe) use among Israeli Arab high school students: Prevalence and determinants of tobacco smoking. ScientificWorldJournal. 8: 517-527.
Latif, Z., J. Jamshed and M. M. Khan. 2017. Knowledge, attitude and practice of cigarette smoking among university students in Muzaffarabad, Pakistan: A cross-sectional study. Int. J. Sci. Rep. 3(9): 240-246.
Mathers, C. D. and D. Loncar. 2006. Projections of global mortalityand burden of disease from 2002 to 2030. PLoS Med. 3(11): e442.
Maziak, W., T. Eissenberg and K. D. Ward. 2005. Patterns of waterpipe use and dependence: Implications for intervention development. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 80(1): 173-179.
Maziak, W., T. Eissenberg, S. Rastam, F. Hammal, T. Asfar, M. E. Bachir, M. F. Fouad and K. D. Ward. 2004. Beliefs and attitudes related to narghile (waterpipe) smoking among university students in Syria. Ann. Epidemiol.
Ministry of Health. 2015. Chronic Non-Communicable Diseases: Risk actors Survey, Iraq STEPS Survey 2015. MOH, Baghdad, Iraq.
Neergaard, J., P. Singh, J. Job and S. Montgomery. 2007. Waterpipe smoking and nicotine exposure: A review of the current evidence. Nicotine Tob. Res. 9(10): 987-994.
Othman, N., A. O. Kasem and F. A. Salih. 2017. Waterpipe smoking among university students in Sulaymaniyah, Iraqi Kurdistan: Prevalence, attitudes, and associated factors. Tanaffos. 16(3): 225-232.
Owonaro, P. A. and J. F. Eniojukan. 2015. Who are the smokers and what factors influence smoking among Amassoma community in South-South Nigeria? IOSR J. Pharm. 5(9): 24-31.
Ramzi, Z. S. 2014. Prevalence of CS among Sulaymaniyah University students. Sulaimani Dent J. 1(2): 51-56.
Rudatsikira, E., A. Abdo and A. S. Muula. 2007. Prevalence and determinants of adolescent tobacco smoking in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. BMC Public Health. 7: 176.
Saldivar, M. G. 2012. A Primer on Survey Response Rate. Florida State University: Learning Systems Institute. Available from: https://www.mgsaldivar.weebly.com/uploads/8/5/1/8/8518205/ saldivar_primer_on_survey_response.pdf. [Last accessed on 2019 Jan 20].
Sameer-ur-Rehman, M. A. Sadiq, M. A. Parekh, A. B. Zubairi, P. M. Frossard and J. A. Khan. 2012. Cross-sectional study identifying forms of tobacco used by Shisha smokers in Pakistan. J. Pak. Med. Assoc. 62(2): 192-195.
Schane, R. E., Ling, P. M. and S. A. Glantz. 2010. Health effects of light and intermittent smoking: A review. Circulation. 121(13): 1518-1522.
Sharif, L., A. Qandil and A. Alkafajei. 2013. Knowledge, attitude and practice of university students towards smoking in Irbid, Jordan. J. Public Health Epidemiol. 5(1): 29-36.
Smith-Simone. S. 2008. Waterpipe tobacco smoking: Knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behavior in two U.S. Samples. Nicotine Tob. Res. 10(2): 393-398.
Sreeramareddy, C. T., P. V. Kishore, J. Paudel, G. Ritesh and R. G. Menezes. 2008. Prevalence and correlates of tobacco use amongst junior collegiate in twin cities of Western Nepal: A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based survey. BMC Public Health. 8: 97.
Thabit, M. F., M. A. B. Mohsin and S. M. Niazy. 2015. Water pipe (Shisha) smoking among a sample of Iraqi male college students: Knowledge and attitudes. IOSR J. Nurs. Health Sci. 4(6): 50-54.
How to Cite
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
1. Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License [CC BY-NC-ND 4.0] that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
2. Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.
3. Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).