Effect of Groundwater Quality on Yield Index and Nutrient Concentration in Stem Plant Tissue of Winter Wheat (Triticum turgidum L.)
The Field experiment was conducted at private land in Grdarasha southern Erbil-Iraq to study the effect of 7 water qualities having electrical conductivity of (0.42, 0.50, 1.43, 2.20, 2.60, 5.40 and 5.70) dS m-1 on chemical characteristics and growth of plant and protein percent in wheat grains in winter season of 2015-2016. The crop was cultivated on 11.12.2015 and continued growing to 30.5.2016. The experiment land was equally divided into three plots spaced 75 cm between them. The results showed that weights and lengths of straw and spike were reduced by W.q5 (67.49, 100.01) g and (51.87, 6.30) cm increased with W.q3 treatment (96.58, 139.17) g and (91.08, 10.57) cm respectively; and wheat grains protein percentage was also increased by W.q6 (13.70) treatment comparing with minimum percent of protein by W.q5 (7.26). The data of Irrigation by saline water of W.q7 resulted concentration increasing of Ca2+, Mg2+ and Na+ (7.39, 2.22 and 4.52) mg g-1; while the concentrations of the same elements were 1.54, 0.61 and 1.81 mg g-1 by W.q2 watering respectively. Potassium concentration was the highest (0.16) mg g-1 by W.q2 water compared to minimum level (0.06) mg g-1 with W.q5 irrigation. The watering by W.q5 (0.29) mg g-1 resulted was lower concentration of phosphorus in the plant compared to minimal saline water W.q3 and W.q4 (0.34) mg g-1.
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