Polytechnic Journal https://journals.epu.edu.iq/index.php/polytechnic <p>Polytechnic&nbsp; Journal (Polytechnic J.) is a biannual academic journal with e-ISSN: <a href="https://portal.issn.org/resource/ISSN/2707-7799">2707-7799</a> &amp; p-ISSN: <a href="https://portal.issn.org/resource/ISSN/2313-5727">2313-5727</a>, and published by Erbil Polytechnic University, Erbil, KRG, Iraq. Polytechnic J. publishes original researches in all area of Pure Science, Applied Science, Technology and Engineering. Polytechnic J. is a Peer-Reviewed Open Access journal with Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives License 4.0 (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0). Polytechnic J. provides immediate, worldwide, barrier-free access to the full text of research articles without requiring a subscription to the journal, and has no article processing charge (APC).&nbsp; Polytechnic J. applies the highest standards to everything it does and adopts APA citation/referencing style. Polytechnic J. Section Policy includes three types of publications; Articles, Review Articles and Letters.</p> <p>By publishing with us, your research will get the coverage and attention it deserves. Open access and continuous online publication means your work will be published swiftly, ready to be accessed by anyone, anywhere, at any time. Article Level Metrics allow you to follow the conversations your work has started.</p> Erbil Polytechnic University en-US Polytechnic Journal 2313-5727 <p>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:<br>1. Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License [CC BY-NC-ND 4.0] that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.<br>2. Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.<br>3. Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).</p> Analytical and Numerical Investigation of Hardening Behavior of Porous Media https://journals.epu.edu.iq/index.php/polytechnic/article/view/59 <p>In this study, a comparative analysis is presented between a new proposed analytical model and numerical results for macroscopic behavior of porous media with isotropic hardening in its matrix. The macroscopic behavior of a sufficiently large representative volume element (RVE), with 200 identical spherical voids, was simulated numerically using finite element method and compared with elementary volume element that contains one void. The matrix of the porous material is considered as elasto-plastic with isotropic hardening obeys exponential law for isotropic hardening. A new parameter &nbsp;was added with exponential law for isotropic hardening to represent the new proposed analytical model for macroscopic isotropic porous hardening. The new added parameter <em>B</em> depended only on the porosity. The results of the new proposed analytical model were compared with numerical results for different types of cyclic loading. Very good agreements were found between the numerical results and the proposed analytical model.</p> Younis Kh. Khdir Copyright (c) 2019 Younis Kh. Khdir https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2019-10-30 2019-10-30 9 2 1 10 10.25156/ptj.v9n2y2019.pp1-10 Effect of Groundwater Quality on Yield Index and Nutrient Concentration in Stem Plant Tissue of Winter Wheat (Triticum turgidum L.) https://journals.epu.edu.iq/index.php/polytechnic/article/view/80 <p>The Field experiment was conducted at private land in Grdarasha southern Erbil-Iraq to study the effect of 7 water qualities having electrical conductivity of (0.42, 0.50, 1.43, 2.20, 2.60, 5.40 and 5.70) dS m<sup>-1</sup> on chemical characteristics and growth of plant and protein percent in wheat grains in winter season of 2015-2016. The crop was cultivated on 11.12.2015 and continued growing to 30.5.2016. The experiment land was equally divided into three plots spaced 75 cm between them. The results showed that weights and lengths of straw and spike were reduced by W.q5 (67.49, 100.01) g and (51.87, 6.30) cm increased with W.q3 treatment (96.58, 139.17) g and (91.08, 10.57) cm respectively; and wheat grains protein percentage was also increased by W.q6 (13.70) treatment comparing with minimum percent of protein by W.q5 (7.26). The data of Irrigation by saline water of W.q7 resulted concentration increasing of Ca<sup>2+</sup>, Mg<sup>2+</sup> and Na<sup>+</sup> (7.39, 2.22 and 4.52) mg g<sup>-1</sup>; while the concentrations of the same elements were 1.54, 0.61 and 1.81 mg g<sup>-1</sup> by W.q2 watering respectively. Potassium concentration was the highest (0.16) mg g<sup>-1</sup> by W.q2 water compared to minimum level (0.06) mg g<sup>-1</sup> with W.q5 irrigation. The watering by W.q5 (0.29) mg g<sup>-1</sup> resulted was lower concentration of phosphorus in the plant compared to minimal saline water W.q3 and W.q4 (0.34) mg g<sup>-1</sup>.</p> Hemn O. Salih Copyright (c) 2019 Hemn O. Salih https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2019-10-30 2019-10-30 9 2 11 15 10.25156/ptj.v9n2y2019.pp11-15 Influence of Two Varieties of Broad Bean and Beauveria bassiana (Blas) on Aphis fabae scop. Under Field Conditions https://journals.epu.edu.iq/index.php/polytechnic/article/view/81 <p>Black bean aphid (Aphis fabae scop.), belongs to order Hemiptera and family Aphididae, is one of the important pests of the Fabaceae family. Beauveria bassiana is an important biocontrol agent to replace chemical insecticides. Therefore, in this research, two different varieties of broad bean with three different concentrations of B. bassiana were investigated on adults of fabae aphids under field conditions. After 3, 5, 7, and 14 days, the effect of the B. bassiana on the population of aphids was measured. The local variety was found to be more sensitive to the aphids compare with the Spain variety. In the high concentration (108 spores/ml), 80% mortality was obtained with B. bassiana in day 3 with local variety; then mortality increased after 5, 7, and 14 days of measuring the population of the adults. Mortality declined with the decrease in concentrations. The Spain variety was found to be resistance because fewer aphids were recorded compared to the local variety. In the highest concentration and day 14, mortality was 100%. The achieved results showed that B. bassiana can be used as a potential biocontrol agent for the management of black bean aphid in the fields.</p> Zayoor Z. Omar Tavga S. Rashid Hayman K. Awla Copyright (c) 2019 Zayoor Z. Omar, Tavga S. Rashid, Hayman Kakakhan Awla https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2019-10-30 2019-10-30 9 2 16 19 10.25156/ptj.v9n2y2019.pp16-19 Knowledge of Minor Discomforts during Pregnancy among Pregnant Women Attending Maternal and Pediatric Hospital in Soran City https://journals.epu.edu.iq/index.php/polytechnic/article/view/82 <p>A lot of pregnant women experience some common discomforts during their pregnancy which may occur due to hormonal, anatomical, and metabolic changes. Although common discomforts may make the pregnant woman feel ill, pregnancy is a normal physiologic process. The common discomforts include backache, leg cramps, constipation, fatigue, nausea and vomiting, sleep disturbance, heartburn, and increased urinary frequency. To assess the pregnant knowledge of minor discomforts happening during pregnancy, it is planned to conduct the present study. A descriptive study design was carried out from December 2017 to June 2018, using non-probability convenience sampling technique for the selection of 150 mothers attended maternal and pediatric hospital in Soran City during antenatal visits. Data were collected through the use of a specially designed questionnaire for the purpose of the study. The findings of the study show that 34% of samples were in the age group of 20–25 years, 42% illiterate and mostly (90%) housewife. Most of women (70%) were in the&nbsp;<em>3<sup>rd&nbsp;</sup></em>trimester of their pregnancy and 66% of them had not history of the previous abortion. More than half of the participants (56%) had poor knowledge of minor discomforts during pregnancy. Our results show statistically significant association between knowledge levels with pregnant education level, and high significant association with age, husbands’ education level, and occupation. In addition, significant associations were found between pregnant mothers’ knowledge and their reproductive variables of gravida, abortion, and type of pregnancy. The major conclusion drawn on the basis of the findings of the present study was that there was inadequate knowledge of discomforts during pregnancy among participants. The study results revealed that women knowledge level was significantly associated with age, educational level, occupation, gravida, abortion, and type of pregnancy.</p> Haroon M. Khalil Kareem J. Hamad Copyright (c) 2019 Haroon M. Khalil, Kareem J. Hamad https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2019-10-30 2019-10-30 9 2 20 24 10.25156/ptj.v9n2y2019.pp20-24 Simultaneous Determination of Atenolol and Amlodipine Using Second Derivative Spectroscopy https://journals.epu.edu.iq/index.php/polytechnic/article/view/84 <p>The present study describes employing second derivative spectrophotometry for simultaneous determination of atenolol and amlodipine in pure form and in commercial formulations. The method is simple, accurate, precise and economic. Zero crossing point technique was used for analysis of the drugs in the combined formulation. The method was found to be linear in the concentration range 5.0-50.0µg/ml of atenolol at 251nm and 5.0-45.0µg/ml of amlodipine at 264nm. The proposed method was successfully applied to determine atenolol and amlodipine in combined dosage as well as in a separate dosage. The obtained results were in good agreement with standard method.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Muharram Y. Mohammad Mohammad S. Abdullah Sangar S. Sabir Copyright (c) 2019 Muharram Y. Mohammad, Mohammad S. Abdullah, Sangar S. Sabir https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2019-10-30 2019-10-30 9 2 25 29 10.25156/ptj.v9n2y2019.pp25-29 Trend Analysis of Annual and Monthly Rainfall in Erbil City, Kurdistan Region, Iraq https://journals.epu.edu.iq/index.php/polytechnic/article/view/46 <p>The objective of this study is to identify the trend for the annual and monthly rainfall time series data from 1963–1964 to 2018–2019 for Erbil city rainfall gauging station. The trend analysis was conducted for only rainy months (from October to May) using the non-parametric Mann-Kendall test, whereas a non-parametric Sen’s slope estimator was used to determine the magnitude of the trend. A functional relationship has been developed between variables using linear regression analysis to determine a linear trend of rainfall for the study area. The annual trend analysis revealed negative (decreasing) trend because the Kendall’s tau (Z) value and the Sen’s slope estimator magnitude were both negative and found to be −0.093 and −1.37, respectively, and the slope of the linear regression analysis was also negative and equal to −0.9148 mm/year, which represents the rate of yearly annual rainfall decreasing trend. Considering the result of monthly rainfall, the trend analysis of rainfall has suggested that there is a trend variation of rainfall in the rainy months. Further, the analysis revealed a negative (decreasing) trend for months November, January, February, March, April, and May and positive (increasing) trend for months October and December. This study is important as it greatly contributes in water resources system planning and management in this region. Furthermore, the results obtained in this work are promising and might help hydraulic civil and water resource engineers in the design of hydraulic structures.</p> Saud A. Hussien Basil Y. Mustafa Farzand K. Medhat Copyright (c) 2019 Saud A. Hussien, Basil Y. Mustafa, Farzand K. Medhat https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2019-10-30 2019-10-30 9 2 30 36 10.25156/ptj.v9n2y2019.pp30-36