Polytechnic Journal https://journals.epu.edu.iq/index.php/polytechnic <p>Polytechnic Journal (Polytechnic J.) is a biannual scientific journal published by Erbil Polytechnic University, Erbil, KRG, Iraq. Polytechnic J. publishes original researches in all area of Pure Science, Applied Science, Technology and Engineering. Polytechnic J. is a Peer-Reviewed Open Access journal with Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives License 4.0 (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0). Polytechnic J. provides immediate, worldwide, barrier-free access to the full text of research articles without requiring a subscription to the journal. Polytechnic J. is available online on OJS-PKP platform since January 2019.</p> <p>p-ISSN: <a href="https://portal.issn.org/resource/ISSN/2313-5727">2313-5727</a> | e-ISSN: <a href="https://portal.issn.org/resource/ISSN/2707-7799">2707-7799</a> DOI: <a style="color: #009de5;" href="https://doi.org/10.25156/ptj">10.25156/ptj</a><br />____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________</p> en-US <p>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:<br>1. Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License [CC BY-NC-ND 4.0] that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.<br>2. Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.<br>3. Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).</p> [email protected] (Dr. Gailan Ismail Hassan) [email protected] (PTJ) Wed, 20 Sep 2023 10:13:26 +0000 OJS http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Evaluation of slope stabilization by vegetation reinforcement: modelling aspects https://journals.epu.edu.iq/index.php/polytechnic/article/view/945 <p>Abstract<br>The slope stability is one of the main concerns in geotechnical engineering. The focus of this study is the numerical assessment of the reinforcement using planting (vegetation) as an environmentally- friendly technique to increase the safety factor of slopes against failure. For this purpose, the physical interaction of the vegetation root with the soil structure, known as apparent root cohesion, is introduced in the Mohr-Coulomb failure model. Therefore, and using parametric study, the effects of root cohesion (Cr) and root depth (Zr) corresponding to different types of plants/trees on safety of different slopes are analyzed using both Numerical and Limit Equilibrium methods. The considered Cr and Zr values are (0,5,10,15,20 and 25 kPa) and (0,0.5,1.0,1.5 and 2.0 m) respectively, which are examined in various cases of slopes with slope angles (β°) of 18.4°,26.6°,33.7°,39.8°,45° and 55°. Also, the effects of the areas of the slope that possibly can be covered by vegetation are simulated in different scenarios and the results are compared with no root reinforcement approach. The results show that the stability of the slope increased by increasing both the root cohesion and the depth. This increase is significant even in cases with the steep slopes. In terms of the area covered by vegetation, the results found that the scenarios that the vegetation is incorporated on slope surface possess a larger factor of safety than crest and toe covered zones. In addition, no influence is observed from the toe region vegetation cover.</p> Shimal Ahmed, Mohammed S. Hussain Copyright (c) 2023 Shimal Ahmed https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://journals.epu.edu.iq/index.php/polytechnic/article/view/945 Wed, 20 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluatin The Effect of Primary Amine in Bitterness of Selected Cephalosporins https://journals.epu.edu.iq/index.php/polytechnic/article/view/1357 <p>Abstract</p> <p><strong>Background and objective</strong>:</p> <p>Cephalosporins, particularly Cephalexin and Cefaclor, are widely prescribed antibiotics known for their characteristic bitter taste, which poses challenges to their palatability and patient compliance. This bitterness is attributed to the specific chemical composition of these substances. The sensory experience of bitterness is influenced by distinct functional groups present in various foods and chemicals, along with the primary amine functional group being identified as a significant contributor to bitterness in compounds such as Cephalosporins.</p> <p>The prevalence of primary amine-related bitterness in both foods and medicines, including Cephalosporins, underscores the need to address this aversion factor. To overcome this taste challenge, researchers have developed diverse techniques and strategies to modify these antibiotics' chemical structure while preserving their therapeutic efficacy.</p> <p>In line with this objective, the current study endeavours to delve deeper into the role played by the primary amine functional group in generating the bitter taste associated with Cephalexin and Cefaclor. By doing so, this investigation aims to provide valuable insights that contribute to the optimization of future antibiotic formulations. The outcomes of this study have the potential to advance the development of antibiotics with enhanced palatability, fostering improved patient acceptance and adherence to treatment regimens.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The formation of imines on the primary amine functional group in both Cephalexin and Cefaclor was achieved through the creation of Schiff bases with aldehydes, specifically Citral, Vanillin, and benzaldehyde. This chemical transformation led to a slight alteration in the bitterness intensity measurements. From this, it can be deduced that the primary amine groups in Cephalexin and Cefaclor significantly conferred bitterness to these medications.</p> <p>Interestingly, a more pronounced reduction in bitterness was observed in the Cephalexin-Aldehyde complex compared to the same complex of Cefaclor. However, despite these changes, the modified complexes were still not transformed into palatable prodrugs of the respective cephalosporins. This observation suggests that while the primary amine groups are contributors to bitterness, they are not the sole determinants. Bitterness in Cephalexin and Cefaclor is likely influenced by multiple functional groups beyond primary amines. Therefore, the outcomes imply that addressing the primary amine alone, through chemical modifications, is insufficient to overcome the bitterness associated with these cephalosporins.</p> <p>In conclusion, the established bitterness in Cephalexin and Cefaclor involves more than just their primary amine functional groups. While efforts were made to mitigate bitterness through chemical modifications, focusing solely on masking the primary amine does not appear effective for overcoming the bitterness of these cephalosporins— at least in the case of Cephalexin and Cefaclor.</p> Diyar, Dana Hamad Ameen Copyright (c) 2023 Diyar https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://journals.epu.edu.iq/index.php/polytechnic/article/view/1357 Wed, 20 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Distribution of Stresses in Narrow Mechanically Stabilized Earth Retaining Walls https://journals.epu.edu.iq/index.php/polytechnic/article/view/1089 <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Mechanically stabilized earth (MSE) walls have been increasingly used in civil engineering applications, such as highways, bridge abutments, and service roads. In certain areas, the width of the backfill for MSE wall construction is limited. According to the literature, the mechanism of MSE walls constructed in narrow backfill width differs from that with sufficient backfill width; hence the magnitude and distribution of stresses in MSE walls with limited backfill width are different. This study presented the vertical and horizontal stresses of two laboratory model tests of narrow MSE walls subjected to strip loading. The stresses measured in laboratory models were compared with calculated stresses using analytical methods. In addition, this study modified the 2:1 stress distribution method (TSD) by considering wall-soil friction effects to calculate the stress distribution in narrow MSE walls under static footing loading. Laboratory experimental results indicated that the measured stresses decreased with increasing depth of the wall models, but increased with applied loading. Accuracy and improvement of the modified TSD method were assessed with the experimental test results and compared with various existing methods. The results of the calculations indicated that the modified method well predicts the distribution of stresses in narrow MSW walls</span></p> Jamal Kakrasul Copyright (c) 2023 Jamal Kakrasul https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://journals.epu.edu.iq/index.php/polytechnic/article/view/1089 Wed, 20 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Impact of Crowded Sky on GNSS Positioning https://journals.epu.edu.iq/index.php/polytechnic/article/view/1048 <p>Presently, there is a huge number of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) satellites in orbit, and it is possible for users to have a clear view with a high number of satellites at a single epoch. This large number of satellites results in a significant improvement in satellite geometry, visibility, Dilution of Precision (DOP), and simultaneously, reduction of occupation time and sufficient time to fix the integer ambiguity. The static method is the most accurate method to establish geodetic networks using satellites, but the length of time required for the survey and the post-processing of the data may restrict its applicability. This paper investigated the impact of increasing number of satellites, regardless the type of the system, on occupation time and evaluating accuracy in static method with a 13 km baseline length. The observations were assessed and compared to the accuracy obtained from different satellite numbers in different periods. The results indicate that by increasing satellite’s number from 4 to 20, the occupation time reduces by 83% from 30 min. to 5 min., and position dilution of precision (PDOP) reduces from 5.30 to 1.4.</p> Shamal Ahmed Copyright (c) 2023 Shamal Ahmed https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://journals.epu.edu.iq/index.php/polytechnic/article/view/1048 Wed, 20 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Land Use Land Cover Changes Detection of Erbil City Using GIS and Remote Sensing https://journals.epu.edu.iq/index.php/polytechnic/article/view/1044 <p>Erbil City, the capital of the Kurdistan region in Iraq, witnessed significant land use land cover changes over the last two decades. These Land Cover Land Use (LULC) changes were attributed to many main social, political, climactic, and economic variables, especially after 2003 in Iraq. The use of geographic information systems and remote sensing became active tools that use public satellite images to detect LULC changes in cities. Two images of the study area of Erbil City for the years 2003 and 2020 respectively were used to analyze and get the nature and the magnitude of the LULC changes. Six LULC classes were recognized and compared for the sake of the analysis process. The LULC included barren, croplands, grasslands, open shrublands, savannas, and urban and built-up lands. Ground truth points were randomly projected and used to compare and validate the LULC class types. A confusion matrix was calculated based on the ground truth points comparison to assess the accuracy of the classes and to get the overall accuracy for the classified LULC. The LULC changes, magnitudes, and a table of “FROM-TO” changes were obtained. The maximum decrease change rate occurred in open shrublands with an average of ~ (-47%), however, the increase change rate in croplands was ~ (+17%), and for urbanizing areas was ~ (+11%). The barren and Savanna lands were proportionally small areas compared to other classes. The results showed that the overall accuracy was 90%, and the Kappa Coefficient value was 0.878.</p> Mohammed Gadban Moahmmed Copyright (c) 2023 Mohammed Gadban Moahmmed https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://journals.epu.edu.iq/index.php/polytechnic/article/view/1044 Wed, 20 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Protective Effect of Fenugreek Supplementation Against Mercury Toxicity on Sperm Parameters, Serum Testosterone and Testicular Tissue in the Rat https://journals.epu.edu.iq/index.php/polytechnic/article/view/1031 <p>The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effects of fenugreek supplementation against toxic effect of mercury chloride (HgCl<sub>2</sub>) on Body weight (B.W), testis and epididymis weight, some sperm parameters, serum testosterone, MDA, and testis histology in the rat. Twenty eight male albino rats their weights ranged from 254 to 302 gm were divided equally into 4 groups. GroupI: control, GroupII: Rats received drinking water contained HgCl<sub>2 </sub>100 mg/L <em>ad libitum</em>, GroupIII: Rats received drinking water contained HgCl<sub>2 </sub>100 mg/L <em>ad libitum</em>, and fenugreek supplementation (F1) 0.75 mg/kg/day orally by gavage, GroupIV: Rats received drinking water contained HgCl<sub>2 </sub>100 mg/L <em>ad libitum</em> and fenugreek supplementation (F2) 1.5 mg/kg/day orally by gavage. The treatments were given for six weeks. After treatments, B.W of rats, testis and epididymis weight, sperm count, sperm morphology, sperm motility, serum testosterone, serum MDA were determined, and histological sections in testes were made in normal and experimental rats. Treatment with F1 against mercury caused no substantial changes in body weight, absolute weight, or relative weight of testis and epididymis, sperm count and testosterone. Whereas sperm motility, and normal sperm were increased significantly, and serum MDA was decreased significantly from Hg group. Improvement in part was observed in testis histology. Meanwhile, F2 against mercury generally was more effective than F1. In conclusion, the present study revealed that fenugreek supplementation at least in part by its antioxidants reduced toxic effect of mercury. Steroids and/or phytoestrogens in fenugreek possibly compensated reduced testosterone which resulted at least in part in improvement of sperm parameters and testis histology.</p> Jalal Amin, Karim R. Hamad Copyright (c) 2023 jalal amin https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://journals.epu.edu.iq/index.php/polytechnic/article/view/1031 Wed, 20 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Clinical & Laboratory markers as predictors for severity and mortality in COVID-19 https://journals.epu.edu.iq/index.php/polytechnic/article/view/999 <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p><strong>Backgrounds:</strong> COVID-19, a new health challenge, can be diagnosed by many laboratory biomarkers. Biomarkers became valuable for prognosis; identifying the severity and mortality of the disease in COVID-19 patients. This study aims to determine the association of clinical, demographics, and laboratory biomarkers (CRP, D-dimer, lymphocyte, and platelet) with the severity and mortality of COVID-19.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: Between June 1st and November 1st, 2020, 34 healthy controls and 104 COVID-19 cases were enrolled in this study. SARS-CoV-2 infection was confirmed using the real-time RT-PCR technique. All cases were analyzed for clinical, epidemiological, and laboratory biomarkers. COVID-19 cases were regrouped into mild (n=40), moderate (n=32), and severe (n=32) groups depending on the severity of the disease; it was also re-categorized into survivor (n=85) and non-survivor (n=19) groups depending on mortality. After collecting blood from participants, hematological parameters (lymphocyte and platelet) and other biomarkers (CRP and D-dimer) were measured by colter and Cobas c111, respectively.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: For age categories and comorbidities, Statistical significance was found among COVID-19 groups. Regarding ABO, Rh, and gender, a non-significant difference was found among groups of COVID-19 patients. Cough and headache i the most common symptom in our population. SpO2 depressed more significantly in severe and moderate groups than in mild groups. Severe and moderate groups exhibit higher CRP, D-dimer, and lymphocyte percentages than control while there was a non-significant change for platelets and absolute lymphocyte counts among studies groups. All studied laboratory biomarkers were higher in non-survivors than in survivor COVID-19 groups. A significant correlation was found between D-dimer and other laboratory biomarkers.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Gender, ABO, and Rh were not associated but age and comorbidities were associated with the severity of COVID-19. All studied laboratory biomarkers were associated with mortality.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Asmaa Ameen Ghareeb, Sazan Moffaq Abdulaziz Copyright (c) 2023 asmaa1982 asmaa https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://journals.epu.edu.iq/index.php/polytechnic/article/view/999 Wed, 20 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Effects Variability Number of Load Repetitions on the Optimum Thickness of Asphalt Layer with Respect to Fatigue and Rutting Behaviour on the Sand Bed Soil Area https://journals.epu.edu.iq/index.php/polytechnic/article/view/968 <p>This study investigates the effect of the variability of a number of load repetitions on the asphalt layer thickness, and also the elastic modulus of pavement materials on the behaviour of flexible pavement structural on the sand bed soil with respect to fatigue failure and rutting failure using the mechanistic design approach. The framework is evaluated for a six-layered flexible pavement system. The major focus of this study is the influence of variability associated with the thickness and resilient moduli of an asphalt layer on fatigue and rutting failures is discussed. The methodology is based on the damage analysis concept which is performed for both fatigue cracking and rutting for flexible pavement by using KENLAYER program for analysis strains in the upper and lower of each layer. Data collection is dependent on the AASHTO 1993 and Asphalt Institute sources used to construct the statistical distributions of layer thicknesses and elastic moduli. The results of pavement analysis showed that the thickness of the foundation, elasticity modulus of the foundation, and sand bed are the key elements that control the equilibrium between fatigue and rutting lives respectively. The study also concluded that increasing the thickness of the surface layer significantly lied to increase the pavement life, while increasing the elasticity modulus of the surface mildly increases the pavement life. The investigated pavement components are; thickness and elasticity modulus for pavement layers. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to identify key input parameters that have the most effect on the optimum thickness of the asphalt layer.</p> Samir Arif, Nazeer Muhammed Ali Abdulah Copyright (c) 2023 Samir Arif https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://journals.epu.edu.iq/index.php/polytechnic/article/view/968 Wed, 20 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Performance evaluation of reclaimed asphalt pavement rejuvenated with Waste Engine Oil and Vacuum Residue in the presence of water https://journals.epu.edu.iq/index.php/polytechnic/article/view/962 <p>The service life of a road pavement reduces as it ages and loses quality due to exposure to various traffic loads and environmental conditions. This study investigates the possibility of reusing aged asphalt in pavement by mixing Waste Engine Oil (WEO) and Vacuum Residue (VR) to create a hybrid rejuvenator. Four types of binders, namely, virgin asphalt, aged asphalt, blended aged and virgin asphalt, and rejuvenated hybrid (WEO-VR) with aged and virgin asphalt, were evaluated using rheological and water immersion tests. The results show that WEO-VR greatly enhanced the properties of old asphalt in the presence of water based on rheological parameters. The behaviour of the rejuvenated asphalt mixture was close to that of the virgin asphalt mixture in the stripping resistance tests. Thus, 6.5 % of the total mix's WEO-VR may be used to regenerate old asphalt, paving the way for more environmentally friendly and sustainably manufactured asphalt.</p> Heja Gh. M. Hasan Copyright (c) 2023 heja ghazi https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://journals.epu.edu.iq/index.php/polytechnic/article/view/962 Wed, 20 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Prevalence and Antibiotic Resistance Profile of Secondary Bacterial Pneumonia and Bloodstream Infections Among Hospitalized COVID-19 Patients and Their Relation to Procalcitonin https://journals.epu.edu.iq/index.php/polytechnic/article/view/953 <p><strong>Background:</strong> Secondary bacterial infections (SBIs) are known complication of viral respiratory infections, and are significantly associated with poorer outcomes in COVID-19 patients.</p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong> We aimed to determine the prevalence, clinical profile, antimicrobial resistance profiles and patient’s outcomes of secondary bacterial pneumonias and bloodstream infections in COVID-19 hospitalized patients and its correlation with PCT levels.</p> <p><strong>Method:</strong> One hundred thirty COVID-19 hospitalized patients were obtained which 90 from ICU and 40 were from Non-ICU Dept. Clinical samples (Blood and respiratory specimens) were taken from the patients. The necessary inflammatory biomarkers (Procalcitonin PCT, C-reactive protein CRP, WBC count) were evaluated. All samples were applied for bacterial identification via routine microbiological tests, Vitek-2 and molecular (PCR) detection. Finally, the antibiotic resistant profile was obtained via Vitek-2 and Standard international Kirby - Bauer disc diffusion method.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Among 130 patients, 64.16% were positive for SBI, in which 86.9% were from ICU and 13.1% were from Non-ICU Dept. The most prevalent SBIs were Gram-negative (77.7%) versus (22.3%) of Gram-positive bacteria. <em>Klebsiella pneumoniae</em>, <em>Acinetobacter baumannii</em> and Coagulase-negative staphylococci were the top predominant species &nbsp;in both blood and respiratory specimen samples. There were obvious relation between mortality rate and SBI in studied patients reached up to (81%). Most of the isolated bacteria, especially the ICU isolated ones were multidrug resistant. Procalcitonin (PCT) level was significantly higher (9.9 ng/ml) in patients with SBI, especially <em>Klebsiella pneumoniae</em> infection. The highest PCT level was found in patients with Gram negative infection in blood stream samples.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> There is a high prevalence of bacterial superinfections in patients with COVID-19 who require hospitalization. Gram negative bacteria, especially <em>Klebsiella pneumoniae</em> and <em>Acinetobacter baumannii </em>were the main bacteria, and the resistance rates against the major isolated bacteria were generally high. While the PCT level was positively associated with secondary bacterial infection and patient outcome.</p> Azhinn Dilshad, Adel Khider Copyright (c) 2023 Azhinn Dilshad, Adel Khider https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://journals.epu.edu.iq/index.php/polytechnic/article/view/953 Wed, 20 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Correlation between life style and gingival health in adult patients in Erbil city-Iraq https://journals.epu.edu.iq/index.php/polytechnic/article/view/524 <p><strong>correlation between life style and gingival </strong><strong>&nbsp;health in</strong><strong> adult patients in Erbil city-Iraq </strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp; </strong><strong>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Shahida Rassul Hussein (B.D.S.,MSc)*</strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;ABSTRACT</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; <strong>Back ground and Objective</strong>: Gingivitis conceder &nbsp;as one of the most common, gum diseases. &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;lifestyle choices can related to gingivitis such as diet, oral hygiene practices, regular dental visits and smoking . The objective of this study was to determine &nbsp;the relationship between life style and gingivitis of adult population in Erbil city.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;&nbsp; Methods:</strong> &nbsp;effect of life style on gingival health was determined for 360 patients age between 20-70years of both genders, visiting Erbil medical centers.&nbsp; Clinical examination of the gingival health was performed by reporting plaque, gingival indices by periodontal prob. Lifestyle was detected &nbsp;&nbsp;by questions about dietary habits, smoking habits, and physical activity ,frequency of tooth brushing&nbsp; were also recorded&nbsp; .</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp; <strong>Results</strong>: Demonstrated that ; the highest mean for plaque(.857) ,gingival (.942) scores were increased&nbsp; with increasing&nbsp; vegetable taking per week with statistical significant differences for plaque score (P-value =0.000)&nbsp; and &nbsp;gingival score (P-value =0.000) while mean plaque(.563 )score gingival(.663) score were decrease with increasing fruit taking per week with statistical significant differences for plaque (P-value =0.000)&nbsp; and &nbsp;gingival score (P-value =0.000) . &nbsp;&nbsp;higher means of plaque(1.145) and gingival(1. 000) scores were reported among individuals who were take 0-1 times per week of egg and butter with &nbsp;statistical highly significant differences between all for plaque and gingival indices &nbsp;(P-value =0.000) .&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The highest mean of plaque (1.109), gingival (1.04) scores were seen related to 0-1 time per week of meat taking with highly statistical significant difference between groups&nbsp;</p> <p>(P-value =0.000). The highest mean of plaque (.745) were reported among non smoker groups with statistically no significant difference (P-value =0.149) and gingival (.790) &nbsp;&nbsp;scores, were seen related to heavy smoker groups with significant differences between both groups.</p> <p>(P-value =0.041).</p> <p>&nbsp;The lowest mean of plaque (.630) and gingival (.629) scores were among persons who performing daily exercise with statistical significant differences (P-value =0.069)</p> <p>(P-value =0.049) for plaque and gingival indices respectively. &nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The lowest mean of plaque (.518) and gingival (.588) scores were reported among individuals with regular daily tooth brushing with statistical significant differences (P-value =0.011) for plaque index and highly significant differences for gingival index&nbsp; &nbsp;(P-value =0.001).&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;<strong>&nbsp;</strong>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;Conclusions:</strong></p> <p>There was a positive correlation between life style &nbsp;and gingival health.</p> <p><strong>Key words: </strong>&nbsp;<strong>&nbsp;</strong>gingivitis, dental plaque, life style, tooth brushing and diet.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Shahida rasul Copyright (c) 2023 shahida rasul https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://journals.epu.edu.iq/index.php/polytechnic/article/view/524 Wed, 20 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Nonlinear analysis of pile raft foundations under eccentric loads https://journals.epu.edu.iq/index.php/polytechnic/article/view/934 <p>This paper discusses a series of 3D nonlinear analyses of the pile group foundation of a 34-floor multi-story building subjected to vertical load and large moments using PLAXIS 3D v20 software. The soil profile consists of seven strata of various properties, with groundwater encountered at 19.6 m below the ground surface. The soil is modeled as hardening soil material in drained conditions. The piles in the pile group foundation are modeled as embedded pile elements. Several parameters were investigated through a rigorous parametric study, such as the pile spacing-diameter ratio (s/d<em><sub>pile</sub></em>), the number of piles, and the pile slenderness ratio (l/d<em><sub>pile</sub></em>) in a square pile configuration with all piles of equal length, on the behavior of un-piled and pile raft foundations of rectangular shape in the plan under eccentric load. The analysis's results were thoroughly examined and discussed, and several conclusions were presented.&nbsp;</p> Khalid Hussein , Rafi Mahmoud Sulaiman Copyright (c) 2023 khalid Qasim / Master Student , Dr. Rafi’ M. Sulaiman Al-Ne’aimi / Assistant Professor https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://journals.epu.edu.iq/index.php/polytechnic/article/view/934 Wed, 20 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 COVID-19 Vaccines Hesitancy among Universities Staff in the Kurdistan Region/Iraq: A Cross-Sectional Study https://journals.epu.edu.iq/index.php/polytechnic/article/view/916 <p>The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) started in Wuhan, China, and become a pandemic quickly. The disease affected the lifestyle and damaged socio-economic status due to prevention measures. These measures had benefits at the time but did not stop the spread of the virus, so vaccination was another strategy to prevent the spread of the virus. This study aimed to explore the COVID-19 vaccines hesitancy among Universities staff in the Kurdistan Region/Iraq. Methods: A survey which consisted of four sections prepared and social media groups and emails were used to recruit universities staff in the Kurdistan Region/Iraq. The survey was created by google forms. Then, the SPSS program was used for data analysis. Results: The male 486 (67.3%) participates were more and most were in the age group of 36-45 (41.6%). Overall, this study recruited 961 universities staff. Data analysis was performed for the unvaccinated 722 participants. The majority of participants were willing to vaccinate 425 (58.9%) and prefer the Pfizer vaccine more. Surprisingly, most of the participants did not believe in the vaccine's rumors 432 (59.8%). Conclusions: The COVID-19 vaccination is to prevent morbidity and mortality. However, hesitancy toward COVID-19 vaccines has been stated worldwide. The main reason is the spreading of misinformation and false rumors about the vaccine and social media is the center for spreading these rumors as this study described.</p> Aveen Asaad, Rukhosh Esaq Mekha, Dawan Jamal Hawezy, Azhi Aram Kareem Copyright (c) 2023 Aveen Asaad https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://journals.epu.edu.iq/index.php/polytechnic/article/view/916 Wed, 20 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Rapid Situation Assessment of Dental Caries and Its Risk Factors Among High School Students in Erbil City; A Cross-Sectional Study https://journals.epu.edu.iq/index.php/polytechnic/article/view/909 <p><strong>Background and objectives: </strong>Dental caries are defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as the destruction of the tooth's enamel caused by acids produced after bacteria fermentation the&nbsp;sweetie foods. Due to the steady maturation of teenage bodies and minds, puberty is a critical period of growth and change. The purpose of the study is to determine the incidence of dental caries and so its risk factors among high school students in Erbil.</p> <p><strong>Methods: A</strong> cross-sectional study was done in Ten high schools from various parts of Erbil city that were randomly selected. Students from each school were enrolled using a randomized clustered sampling technique.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The study population was composed of 650 students, whose ages ranged from 14 to 20 years, with a mean and ±SD of 16.71±1.5 years; 298 (45.8%) of them were males and 352 (54.2%) were females. with a male-to-female ratio of 1:1.8. The study found that 72.31% of the study sample has dental caries, while 27.69% were free from caries. The caries was more among males 228 (76.5%) than females 242 (58.8%) with a statistically significant difference (P 0.028).</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: The study concluded that in Erbil City, a large percentage of high school students have dental cavities. The associated risk factors for caries development were high in the male gender, low parental education, low family income, low teeth brushing, not using dental floss, and absence of interdental cleaning.</p> Zana Abdulrahman, Khalis B.M. Ali Copyright (c) 2023 Zana Abdulrahman https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://journals.epu.edu.iq/index.php/polytechnic/article/view/909 Wed, 20 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Indoors Smartphone Positioning Enhancement Using Wi-Fi and Magnetometer https://journals.epu.edu.iq/index.php/polytechnic/article/view/900 <p>Recent embedded technologies on today’s smartphone make the smartphones more comfortable to run a large number of applications which are used for people’s daily activities. Among all these applications, the location-based services (LBS) are frequently used. The LBS applications utilized location information via Smartphones technologies. For example, when outdoors, Global Navigation System (GPS) or generally Global navigation satellite system&nbsp;(GNSS) signals are used to retrieve the location information within enough positioning accuracy. However, when smartphone holders are entering to the urbane area or indoors, the performance of GPS service will be degraded or sometime cannot retrieve location information due to blocking the GPS signals through the roofs or walls of the buildings. Beside this, many onboard smartphones wireless chipsets or sensors’ readings can be used as alternate technologies to provide location information including Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, cellular, and inertial sensors. However, these technologies during positioning process will faced its own limitations such as: none-line-of-sight signals, multipath signals, and sensor drift or accumulated error. For these reasons, it is very difficult to provide a good positioning accuracy, when only a single technology is utilized alone. Therefore, this study proposes a new positioning solution based on hybridize two different technologies measurements including received signal strength (RSS) of the Wi-Fi access points and onboard smartphone magnetometer readings within fingerprinting positioning technique. The hybridization of these technologies is based on taking their advantaged and mitigating their drawbacks. In addition to that, this study also provided an improved version of matching algorithm of the fingerprinting technique by applying the concept of boosting-dataset records. A set of real trial experiments are conducted to prove the validity of the proposed solution. The obtained results of the experiments show that the proposed positioning solution can provide an enough positioning accuracy, up to 0.13 meter.</p> Runahi Fryad, Halgurd Maghdid, Azhin Tahir Sabir Copyright (c) 2023 Runahi Fryad, halgurd, sabir https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://journals.epu.edu.iq/index.php/polytechnic/article/view/900 Wed, 20 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Allelopathic effect of Sidr (Ziziphus spina- christi (L.) Wild.) Leaf extracts on seed germination and seedling parameters https://journals.epu.edu.iq/index.php/polytechnic/article/view/871 <p>Plants have several direct or indirect effects on other surrounding organisms in which it may be harmful or beneficial, in this study the potential allopathic effects of <em>Ziziphus spina-christi</em> (Sidr) leaf extracts were investigated alongside wheat (<em>Triticum aestivum</em> L), barley (<em>Hordeum vulgare </em>L.), cress (<em>Lepidium sativum</em> L.) and fenugreek (<em>Trigonella foenum-graecum </em>L.) &nbsp;Seeds for the observation of their germination, in which different concentrations (0%, 2.5%, 5.0%, 7.5%, and 10%) of sidr aqueous and methanolic extracts (70% methanol) were made and used against these seeds <em>in vitro</em> and their effect on germination was determined. This experiment showed a significant inhibitory effect of both extracts on seed germination at all concentrations and it became more effective as the concentration rises, as a result<em>, </em>sidr leaf extracts may demonstrate the use of this species as an herbicide and provide significant agricultural success</p> Nohra Shwan Hanna, Yassen Ahmad Rasheed Goran Copyright (c) 2023 nohra kakona, A.P.Dr. yassen ahmed https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://journals.epu.edu.iq/index.php/polytechnic/article/view/871 Wed, 20 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Nephroprotective Role of L-Cysteine, Silymarin and Ursodeoxycholic acid, against Carbon Tetrachloride induced Oxidative Stress in Male Albino Rats https://journals.epu.edu.iq/index.php/polytechnic/article/view/783 <p>The comparison of histopathological and biochemical effects of L-cysteine, silymarin and ursodeoxycholic acid which have a protective effect on kidney function against CCl4 induce nephrotoxicity were investigated in this study. Twenty adult male rats were divided into 5 groups and treated as follows, the control group was administrated 1.5 ml/kg. B.W physiological solution (0.9%) orally, Carbon Tetrachloride group (CCl4 1.5 ml/kg. B.W), L-cysteine (100mg/kg B.W.) +CCl4 group, ursodeoxycholic acid (50 ml/kg B.W.) +CCl4 group, and the last group was Silymarin 100 mg/kg. B.W with CCl4, the experiment lasted 30 days. Oxidative stress caused by CCl4&nbsp;caused increasing in Creatinine and Urea levels in serum while decreasing the level of uric acid and albumin when compared with the control group, L-cysteine, Silymarin and the drug presented ameliorating effect by decreasing creatinine, Urea, and increasing the level of uric acid with albumin. Histopathological results showed that CCl4 caused oxidative damage in kidney tubules in comparison with control group, while Silymarin, L-cysteine showed nephroprotective effects.</p> Hero Helal Muhammed Saed, Zeyan Abdullah Ali, Sarwar N. Jafar, Treefa F. Ismail Copyright (c) 2023 Zeyan Abdullah Ali https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://journals.epu.edu.iq/index.php/polytechnic/article/view/783 Wed, 20 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Investigation Limb darkening for short period AB Andromeda eclipsing binary star https://journals.epu.edu.iq/index.php/polytechnic/article/view/696 <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; This work deal with characterizing the limb darkening coefficients for the short period binary stars AD Andromeda to determine the size, luminosities and masses of the Individual stars as well as orbital size and orientation of the binary system. Calculate limb darkening for monochromatic pass bounds, the visual rang i.e. intermediate (uvby) have been calculated and broad bands to the near infrared. Also compute bolometric limb darkening coefficients for a linear as well as nonlinear logarithmic and square root limb darkening law as function of surface effective temperatures covering a wide range and surface gravities. By using the interpolation program of Vanhamme.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Chiman Ibrahim Hussein Copyright (c) 2023 Talhat Ismael Hassan Hassan https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://journals.epu.edu.iq/index.php/polytechnic/article/view/696 Wed, 20 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 PHOTON INTERACTION PARAMETERS OF SOME CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS FOUND IN HARD TISSUE https://journals.epu.edu.iq/index.php/polytechnic/article/view/669 <p>Photon interaction parameters of some chemical compounds in hard tissue were investigated in the energy range (1keV-100 GeV) by using the (NistXCom) program. These interaction parameters: mass attenuation coefficients (μ<sub>ρ</sub>), effective atomic number (Z<sub>eff</sub>), and electron density (N<sub>el</sub>) as a measure of the absorption of photon energy by compounds in ­­­hard tissue. The events that cause absorption are the photoelectric effect, Compton effect, and pair formation events. Effective atomic numbers and electron densities of some compounds in hard tissue were calculated using the obtained mass attenuation coefficients. From the obtained data, the values of photon interaction parameters have been investigated to change with energy and compounds of the hard tissue. The variations of these parameters with energy are shown graphically for all photon interactions. Also, we calculated the half-value thickness (HVT) and μρ for some compounds Al<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>, SiO<sub>2</sub> and MgO are agree with the theoretical value.</p> Didar Swara Salih, Rafet Y Copyright (c) 2023 Didar Salih https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://journals.epu.edu.iq/index.php/polytechnic/article/view/669 Wed, 20 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000