Polytechnic Journal https://journals.epu.edu.iq/index.php/polytechnic <p>Polytechnic Journal (Polytechnic J.) is a biannual scientific journal published by Erbil Polytechnic University, Erbil, KRG, Iraq. Polytechnic J. publishes original researches in all area of Pure Science, Applied Science, Technology and Engineering. Polytechnic J. is a Peer-Reviewed Open Access journal with Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives License 4.0 (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0). Polytechnic J. provides immediate, worldwide, barrier-free access to the full text of research articles without requiring a subscription to the journal. Polytechnic J. is available online on OJS-PKP platform since January 2019.</p> <p>p-ISSN: <a href="https://portal.issn.org/resource/ISSN/2313-5727">2313-5727</a> | e-ISSN: <a href="https://portal.issn.org/resource/ISSN/2707-7799">2707-7799</a> DOI: <a style="color: #009de5;" href="https://doi.org/10.25156/ptj">10.25156/ptj</a><br />____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________</p> en-US <p>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:<br>1. Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License [CC BY-NC-ND 4.0] that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.<br>2. Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.<br>3. Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).</p> ojs@epu.edu.iq (Dr. Hoshyar Amin Ahmed) ojs@epu.edu.iq (Hiwa Khalil Ibrahim) Thu, 07 Nov 2019 00:00:00 -0700 OJS 3.2.1.1 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Analytical and Numerical Investigation of Hardening Behavior of Porous Media https://journals.epu.edu.iq/index.php/polytechnic/article/view/59 <p>In this study, a comparative analysis is presented between a new proposed analytical model and numerical results for macroscopic behavior of porous media with isotropic hardening in its matrix. The macroscopic behavior of a sufficiently large representative volume element (RVE), with 200 identical spherical voids, was simulated numerically using finite element method and compared with elementary volume element that contains one void. The matrix of the porous material is considered as elasto-plastic with isotropic hardening obeys exponential law for isotropic hardening. A new parameter &nbsp;was added with exponential law for isotropic hardening to represent the new proposed analytical model for macroscopic isotropic porous hardening. The new added parameter <em>B</em> depended only on the porosity. The results of the new proposed analytical model were compared with numerical results for different types of cyclic loading. Very good agreements were found between the numerical results and the proposed analytical model.</p> Younis Kh. Khdir Copyright (c) 2019 Younis Kh. Khdir https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://journals.epu.edu.iq/index.php/polytechnic/article/view/59 Wed, 30 Oct 2019 00:00:00 -0700 Effect of Groundwater Quality on Yield Index and Nutrient Concentration in Stem Plant Tissue of Winter Wheat (Triticum turgidum L.) https://journals.epu.edu.iq/index.php/polytechnic/article/view/80 <p>The Field experiment was conducted at private land in Grdarasha southern Erbil-Iraq to study the effect of 7 water qualities having electrical conductivity of (0.42, 0.50, 1.43, 2.20, 2.60, 5.40 and 5.70) dS m<sup>-1</sup> on chemical characteristics and growth of plant and protein percent in wheat grains in winter season of 2015-2016. The crop was cultivated on 11.12.2015 and continued growing to 30.5.2016. The experiment land was equally divided into three plots spaced 75 cm between them. The results showed that weights and lengths of straw and spike were reduced by W.q5 (67.49, 100.01) g and (51.87, 6.30) cm increased with W.q3 treatment (96.58, 139.17) g and (91.08, 10.57) cm respectively; and wheat grains protein percentage was also increased by W.q6 (13.70) treatment comparing with minimum percent of protein by W.q5 (7.26). The data of Irrigation by saline water of W.q7 resulted concentration increasing of Ca<sup>2+</sup>, Mg<sup>2+</sup> and Na<sup>+</sup> (7.39, 2.22 and 4.52) mg g<sup>-1</sup>; while the concentrations of the same elements were 1.54, 0.61 and 1.81 mg g<sup>-1</sup> by W.q2 watering respectively. Potassium concentration was the highest (0.16) mg g<sup>-1</sup> by W.q2 water compared to minimum level (0.06) mg g<sup>-1</sup> with W.q5 irrigation. The watering by W.q5 (0.29) mg g<sup>-1</sup> resulted was lower concentration of phosphorus in the plant compared to minimal saline water W.q3 and W.q4 (0.34) mg g<sup>-1</sup>.</p> Hemn O. Salih Copyright (c) 2019 Hemn O. Salih https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://journals.epu.edu.iq/index.php/polytechnic/article/view/80 Wed, 30 Oct 2019 00:00:00 -0700 Influence of Two Varieties of Broad Bean and Beauveria bassiana (Blas) on Aphis fabae scop. Under Field Conditions https://journals.epu.edu.iq/index.php/polytechnic/article/view/81 <p>Black bean aphid (Aphis fabae scop.), belongs to order Hemiptera and family Aphididae, is one of the important pests of the Fabaceae family. Beauveria bassiana is an important biocontrol agent to replace chemical insecticides. Therefore, in this research, two different varieties of broad bean with three different concentrations of B. bassiana were investigated on adults of fabae aphids under field conditions. After 3, 5, 7, and 14 days, the effect of the B. bassiana on the population of aphids was measured. The local variety was found to be more sensitive to the aphids compare with the Spain variety. In the high concentration (108 spores/ml), 80% mortality was obtained with B. bassiana in day 3 with local variety; then mortality increased after 5, 7, and 14 days of measuring the population of the adults. Mortality declined with the decrease in concentrations. The Spain variety was found to be resistance because fewer aphids were recorded compared to the local variety. In the highest concentration and day 14, mortality was 100%. The achieved results showed that B. bassiana can be used as a potential biocontrol agent for the management of black bean aphid in the fields.</p> Zayoor Z. Omar, Tavga S. Rashid, Hayman K. Awla Copyright (c) 2019 Zayoor Z. Omar, Tavga S. Rashid, Hayman Kakakhan Awla https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://journals.epu.edu.iq/index.php/polytechnic/article/view/81 Wed, 30 Oct 2019 00:00:00 -0700 Knowledge of Minor Discomforts during Pregnancy among Pregnant Women Attending Maternal and Pediatric Hospital in Soran City https://journals.epu.edu.iq/index.php/polytechnic/article/view/82 <p>A lot of pregnant women experience some common discomforts during their pregnancy which may occur due to hormonal, anatomical, and metabolic changes. Although common discomforts may make the pregnant woman feel ill, pregnancy is a normal physiologic process. The common discomforts include backache, leg cramps, constipation, fatigue, nausea and vomiting, sleep disturbance, heartburn, and increased urinary frequency. To assess the pregnant knowledge of minor discomforts happening during pregnancy, it is planned to conduct the present study. A descriptive study design was carried out from December 2017 to June 2018, using non-probability convenience sampling technique for the selection of 150 mothers attended maternal and pediatric hospital in Soran City during antenatal visits. Data were collected through the use of a specially designed questionnaire for the purpose of the study. The findings of the study show that 34% of samples were in the age group of 20–25 years, 42% illiterate and mostly (90%) housewife. Most of women (70%) were in the&nbsp;<em>3<sup>rd&nbsp;</sup></em>trimester of their pregnancy and 66% of them had not history of the previous abortion. More than half of the participants (56%) had poor knowledge of minor discomforts during pregnancy. Our results show statistically significant association between knowledge levels with pregnant education level, and high significant association with age, husbands’ education level, and occupation. In addition, significant associations were found between pregnant mothers’ knowledge and their reproductive variables of gravida, abortion, and type of pregnancy. The major conclusion drawn on the basis of the findings of the present study was that there was inadequate knowledge of discomforts during pregnancy among participants. The study results revealed that women knowledge level was significantly associated with age, educational level, occupation, gravida, abortion, and type of pregnancy.</p> Haroon M. Khalil, Kareem J. Hamad Copyright (c) 2019 Haroon M. Khalil, Kareem J. Hamad https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://journals.epu.edu.iq/index.php/polytechnic/article/view/82 Wed, 30 Oct 2019 00:00:00 -0700 Simultaneous Determination of Atenolol and Amlodipine Using Second Derivative Spectroscopy https://journals.epu.edu.iq/index.php/polytechnic/article/view/84 <p>The present study describes employing second derivative spectrophotometry for simultaneous determination of atenolol and amlodipine in pure form and in commercial formulations. The method is simple, accurate, precise and economic. Zero crossing point technique was used for analysis of the drugs in the combined formulation. The method was found to be linear in the concentration range 5.0-50.0µg/ml of atenolol at 251nm and 5.0-45.0µg/ml of amlodipine at 264nm. The proposed method was successfully applied to determine atenolol and amlodipine in combined dosage as well as in a separate dosage. The obtained results were in good agreement with standard method.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Muharram Y. Mohammad, Mohammad S. Abdullah, Sangar S. Sabir Copyright (c) 2019 Muharram Y. Mohammad, Mohammad S. Abdullah, Sangar S. Sabir https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://journals.epu.edu.iq/index.php/polytechnic/article/view/84 Wed, 30 Oct 2019 00:00:00 -0700 Trend Analysis of Annual and Monthly Rainfall in Erbil City, Kurdistan Region, Iraq https://journals.epu.edu.iq/index.php/polytechnic/article/view/46 <p>The objective of this study is to identify the trend for the annual and monthly rainfall time series data from 1963–1964 to 2018–2019 for Erbil city rainfall gauging station. The trend analysis was conducted for only rainy months (from October to May) using the non-parametric Mann-Kendall test, whereas a non-parametric Sen’s slope estimator was used to determine the magnitude of the trend. A functional relationship has been developed between variables using linear regression analysis to determine a linear trend of rainfall for the study area. The annual trend analysis revealed negative (decreasing) trend because the Kendall’s tau (Z) value and the Sen’s slope estimator magnitude were both negative and found to be ?0.093 and ?1.37, respectively, and the slope of the linear regression analysis was also negative and equal to ?0.9148 mm/year, which represents the rate of yearly annual rainfall decreasing trend. Considering the result of monthly rainfall, the trend analysis of rainfall has suggested that there is a trend variation of rainfall in the rainy months. Further, the analysis revealed a negative (decreasing) trend for months November, January, February, March, April, and May and positive (increasing) trend for months October and December. This study is important as it greatly contributes in water resources system planning and management in this region. Furthermore, the results obtained in this work are promising and might help hydraulic civil and water resource engineers in the design of hydraulic structures.</p> Saud A. Hussien, Basil Y. Mustafa, Farzand K. Medhat Copyright (c) 2019 Saud A. Hussien, Basil Y. Mustafa, Farzand K. Medhat https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://journals.epu.edu.iq/index.php/polytechnic/article/view/46 Wed, 30 Oct 2019 00:00:00 -0700 Development and In Vitro Evaluation of Buccal Effervescent Tablet Containing Ropinirole Hydrochloride https://journals.epu.edu.iq/index.php/polytechnic/article/view/8 <p>The buccal delivery is an attractive route to improve the clinical efficacy of ropinirole hydrochloride (RH) for the treatment of Parkinson and restless syndrome since this drug undergoes extensive first-pass effect, which has only 50% bioavailability after oral administration. The purpose of this study was to develop and optimize the formulation of fast disintegrating buccal effervescent tablets of RH using four types of superdisintegrants. The direct compression method was used to develop four different formulas containing RH using Kyron T-314, crospovidone, croscarmellose sodium, and sodium starch glycolate separately as a superdisintegrant. Sodium bicarbonate and citric acid were added to the formulations to produce effervescence, while sodium carbonate was used as a pH adjusting agent. All the prepared formulas were evaluated, in terms of weight variation, friability, content dose uniformity, hardness, disintegration, and dissolution test. The best formulation was selected for the subsequent study. The obtained results from pre-compression studies were in acceptable range according to British Pharmacopoeia. All formulas passed through the quality control test and significant difference (P &lt; 0.05) was observed for the formula four compared to other formulas, due to the presence of Kyron T-314 as a superdisintegrant in formulation number 4. RH cloud be prepared as a buccal effervescent tablet and superdisintegrant provide fast disintegration of the tablet to exert rapid action.</p> Shahla S. Smail, Naz J. Ibrahim, Nozad R. Hussein Copyright (c) 2019 Shahla S. Smail, Naz J. Ibrahim, Nozad R. Hussein https://journals.epu.edu.iq/index.php/polytechnic/article/view/8 Sun, 01 Dec 2019 00:00:00 -0700 Spectrophotometric Determination of Carbamazepine in Pharmaceutical Formulations Based on its Reaction with a Brominating Agent https://journals.epu.edu.iq/index.php/polytechnic/article/view/9 <p>Two accurate spectrophotometric methods described for the estimation of carbamazepine (CBZ) in both pharmaceutical and pure form. These methodologies are attached to the bromination of CBZ by bromine formed in instantly from the bromate-bromide reaction. The general procedure includes the additional of a known amount of bromate-bromide reagent in an acidic mediocre to CBZ. After the reaction is integrated, the unreacted bromine was reacted with a steady amount of methylene blue, and the absorbance was measured at 665 nm (method A) or, cresol red could be used for the reaction and the absorbance moderated at 517 nm (method B). Beer’s law was submitted from 0.45 to 15.00 ?g/mL CBZ with a molar absorptivity of 4.93 × 10<sup>3</sup> L/mol.cm for method A and from 0.50 to 12.00 ?g/mL CBZ with a molar absorptivity of 1.37 × 10<sup>4</sup> L/mol.cm for method B. The proposed methods were effective for the determination of CBZ in tablets with great precision and accuracy.</p> Warda Rizgar, Diyar S. Ali Copyright (c) 2019 Warda Rizgar, Diyar S. Ali https://journals.epu.edu.iq/index.php/polytechnic/article/view/9 Sun, 01 Dec 2019 00:00:00 -0700 Dosimetric Analysis with Intensity-modulated Radiation Therapy for Central Nervous System Irradiation in Patients with Brain Cancer Compared with Three-dimensional Conformal Radiation Therapy Treatment https://journals.epu.edu.iq/index.php/polytechnic/article/view/21 <p>Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) was put as the development of three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT). The purpose of the present study is to compare the dosimetric analysis of two techniques of radiotherapy (IMRT) and 3D-CRT, which include target volume and organ at risk for both plans. The present study enrolled that nine patients with different types of brain cancer which previously irradiated from November 2018 to May 2019 were selected in Zhianawa Cancer Center in Sulaymaniyah; all cases were planned again by both techniques 3D-CRT and IMRT. IMRT planning provides reducing the dose of both right and left optic nerve mean dose for right optic nerve 13.70 Gy and left 14.93 Gy compared with the 3D-CRT plan (right optic nerve 23.54 Gy and left 19.13 Gy). P = 0.2 for the right optic nerve and P = 0.56 for the left optic nerve were statistically significant. IMRT plan reduces dose to the optic chiasm compared to 3D-CRT plan, the mean dose of optic chiasm for IMRT was 33.37 Gy relative to 3D-CRT which was 34.28 Gy and P = 0.92. IMRT plan was better than 3D-CRT for many organs at risk, especially for optic chiasm and both optic nerve deliver less dose than 3D-CRT.</p> Noor S. Omer, Runak T. Ali Copyright (c) 2019 Noor S. Omer, Runak T. Ali https://journals.epu.edu.iq/index.php/polytechnic/article/view/21 Sun, 01 Dec 2019 00:00:00 -0700 Knowledge and Attitudes of Pregnant Women Regarding Breastfeeding https://journals.epu.edu.iq/index.php/polytechnic/article/view/23 <p>Inadequate knowledge or inappropriate attitude about breastfeeding may lead to undesirable consequences. This study assessed the breastfeeding knowledge and attitude of pregnant women about breastfeeding. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on 120 pregnant women from four primary health-care centers in Erbil City/Iraqi Kurdistan from March 15, 2017, to May 15, 2017. A structured questionnaire was developed based on the evidence in the literature. A face to face interview technique was used for data collection. Overall, 61.7% of mothers had a poor level of knowledge of breastfeeding despite having a positive attitude (96.7%). There was a significant association between mothers’ knowledge and mothers’ education level, age, occupation, and type of family. However, no significant association was found between mothers’ attitude and their education level, age, occupation, parity, type of family, and having the plan to breastfeed. As general, the highest percentage of correct responses was about knowing about early skin-to-skin contact (69.2%), initiation of breastfeeding (57.5%), knowing the colostrum (76.7%), necessity of giving colostrum (79.2%), no necessity prelacteal feeding (79.2%), exclusive breastfeeding age (69.2%), complementary age food (70.8%), and optimal weaning time (70%) while the lowest percentage of correct responses was about breastfeeding benefits for infant and mother; as well as the contraindication of breastfeeding. Having good attitude regarding breastfeeding is not ensuring to have good knowledge. A significant number of pregnant mothers had not sufficient knowledge that indicating the necessity of interventional programs by the health system.</p> Hamdia M. Ahmed, Safyia S. Piro Copyright (c) 2019 Hamdia M.Ahmed, Safyia S.Piro https://journals.epu.edu.iq/index.php/polytechnic/article/view/23 Sun, 01 Dec 2019 00:00:00 -0700 Prevalence of Cigarette and “Waterpipe” Smoking among “Duhok Universities” Students https://journals.epu.edu.iq/index.php/polytechnic/article/view/24 <p>Tobacco use is considered one of the largest public health threats facing the world. Waterpipe smoking (WPS) is a customary and cultural method of tobacco consumption in many parts of the world. This study aimed to find the prevalence of smoking among Duhok city University students in Iraq and to assess students’ knowledge regarding smoking. A cross-sectional, self-completed questionnaire-based study was conducted at four Universities in Duhok city. According to the study’s objectives, scientific and literature colleges from each university are selected. The selection of the number of enrolled colleges and departments is proportionate with total university students’ number. The colleges and departments are selected by a simple random sampling method. Descriptive and analytic statistical tools (SPSS-23) were used to assess significant associations. Chi-square test association is used to compare between proportions. The prevalence of cigarette smoking was 23.5% among studied students (41.9% among males and 6.8% among females), and the prevalence of WPS was 33.2% (56.7% among males and 11.8% among females). There is a significant correlation between cigarette smoking and WPS. Most of the students in this study were not well aware of the most harmful effects of smoking. There was a highly statistically significant association between cigarette and WPS. Smoking in males is more prevalent than females. Inclusion of a detailed and separate course in the university curriculum regarding tobacco control and the effects of smoking on health should be made compulsory. This course must be started from the 1st year of academic courses till the time of graduation or conducting health education and extensive counseling on the harmful effect of smoking for all university students.</p> Masood A. Kareem, Jader A. Jader Copyright (c) 2019 Masood A. Kareem, Jader A. Jader https://journals.epu.edu.iq/index.php/polytechnic/article/view/24 Sun, 01 Dec 2019 00:00:00 -0700 Estimation of Complement Components (C3 and C4) and hs-CRP Level in Kidney Failure Patients https://journals.epu.edu.iq/index.php/polytechnic/article/view/25 <p>Several kidney diseases associated with complement activation. Complement activation occurs in progressive chronic kidney disease and may contribute to the chronic inflammation that is characteristically found in the kidney. This study was aimed to detect the level of complement system in kidney failure patients. This study was included (30) patients with renal failure and (15) healthy donors as control group. Serum samples separated from the whole blood of patients and healthy individuals. C3, C4, and high sensitive C- reactive protein (hsCRP) levels were estimated for all samples. The results were analyzed according to patients who were dialysis, non-dialysis, with diabetes, without diabetes, with high blood pressure, and without high blood pressure. The results showed that there was a significant increase (P &lt; 0.05) in C3 level for patients with renal failure (154.12 mg/dl) compared to control group (126.08 mg/dl) while C4 level for renal failure patients (35.38 mg/dl) showed no significant change compared to control group (36.26 mg/dl). However, C3 level of patients under dialysis (152.15 mg/dl), not dialysis (162.01 mg/dl), with diabetic (155.80 mg/dl), and without diabetic (153 mg/dl) recorded significant elevation compared with control group (126.08 mg/dl) but C4 level did not show any significant change for all groups. C3 and C4 concentrations did not record significant alteration (P &lt; 0.05) in patient with hypertension, nonhypertension, and control group. Moreover, seropositivity of CRP for patients with renal failure was ranged from 33.33% to 60% in all patients groups included in this study. hsCRP concentration significantly elevated (P &lt; 0.05) in under dialysis (1.787 mg/L), nondialysis (1.583 mg/L), with diabetic (2.766 mg/L), nondiabetic (1.066 mg/L), with hypertension (1.84 mg/L), and nonhypertension (1.26 mg/L) when compared with control group (0.667 mg/L). The present findings suggest that the increased serum levels of C3, C4, and hs-CRP reflect the of kidney injury. Hence, this reflects the complement system as an important mediator of kidney injury and the role of anti-complement therapy in nephropathy will expand in the future.</p> Zaid N. Elia, Nisreen W. Mustafa Copyright (c) 2019 Zaid N. Elia, Nisreen W. Mustafa https://journals.epu.edu.iq/index.php/polytechnic/article/view/25 Sun, 01 Dec 2019 00:00:00 -0700 Performance Evaluation of Construction Project in Erbil City by adopting Site Layout planning https://journals.epu.edu.iq/index.php/polytechnic/article/view/28 <p style="text-align: justify; line-height: 200%;">In general, construction site management is planning, organizing, leading, directing, monitoring, and controlling overall construction activities, during the implementation phase, one of the key elements of construction site management is site layout planning, which is identifying, sizing, and placing temporary facilities within construction boundaries. It has got enormous influence on project parameters. The main aim of this study is to investigate Erbil’s project’s site layout performance. The study was carried out in Erbil, 16 projects have selected for assessment. From the result, it was found that these projects suffer from poor site layout planning, as there was a poor plan for construction facilities, the location of these facilities was wrong, almost, all projects have neglected safety-related issues and much more factors which have been discussed in the analysis section. As a solution, the researcher believes that the current site layout design of projects need immediate improvement, planning should be considered as priority for every single temporary facility during construction; safety basic should be implemented, including wearing PPE; labor accommodation should be improved; sanitation of the workforce should be good; and many other site layout elements should be developed.</p> Haval M. Salih, Ahmet Oztas, Omed Dewary, Ayman A. Ahmed Copyright (c) 2019 Haval M. Salih, Ahmet Oztas https://journals.epu.edu.iq/index.php/polytechnic/article/view/28 Sun, 01 Dec 2019 00:00:00 -0700 Effects of Fly Ash and Granulated Ground Blast Furnace Slag on Stabilization of Crude Oil Contamination Sandy Soil https://journals.epu.edu.iq/index.php/polytechnic/article/view/29 <p>This paper deals with on stabilization of crude oil-contaminated soil. Industrial waste materials such as GGBFS and fly ash (FA) are used to achieve acceptable results for compaction and strength properties. GGBFS and FA utilized in two groups of soil (clean soil and 6% contaminated with crude oil) with varying proportions of GGBFS and FA by weight of soil. The primary goals of this study explain to establish a conclusion that GGBFS and FA are the best byproduct stabilizer material for increasing the strength and stability of soil by investigating samples of soil. In this study, the effect of GGBFS and FA on compaction properties (OMC and MDD) and direct shear strength (cohesion and angle of friction) observed. Different percentages of GGBFS (0%, 10%, and 15%) and FA (0%, 10%, and 15%) by dry weight were utilized in mixtures of sandy soil samples for different experiments. Ultimately, bases on the experimental results, it is summarized that the use of industrial wastes, i.e. GGBFS and Flyash, are affected in shear strength and compaction properties. Although, they have environment-friendly behavior for the construction project purpose.</p> Farman K. Ghaffoori, Mohamed M. Arbili Copyright (c) 2019 Farman K. Ghaffoori, Mehmet KARPUZCU, Mohamed M. ARBILI https://journals.epu.edu.iq/index.php/polytechnic/article/view/29 Sun, 01 Dec 2019 00:00:00 -0700 Isolation, Identification, and Antibiotics Susceptibility Determination of Proteus Species Obtained from Various Clinical Specimens in Erbil City https://journals.epu.edu.iq/index.php/polytechnic/article/view/34 <p>Fifty-two Proteus isolates, (47) Proteus mirabilis, (4) Proteus vulgaris, and (1) Proteus hauseri are being isolated from (200) clinical specimens taken from patients admitted to different hospitals in Erbil city/Kurdistan region of Iraq. Specimens were of urine, wounds swabs, burn swabs, vaginal swabs, ear swabs, eye swabs, and sputum. All isolates were identified depending on cultural, morphological, biochemical characteristics, and confirmatory VITEK 2 system. Furthermore, VITEK 2 (antibiotic susceptibility testing) panel was used to determine the antibiotic susceptibility of Proteus isolates, and the results showed that all isolates were entirely resistant to tetracycline and tigecycline (100%), but sensitive to meropenem. Furthermore, the present study reported a case of rare Proteus species – P. hauseri – isolated from a patient with urinary tract infection in Erbil City which characterized by no swarming on blood agar.</p> Treska D. kamil, Sanaria F. Jarjes Copyright (c) 2019 Treska D. kamil, Sanaria F. Jarjes https://journals.epu.edu.iq/index.php/polytechnic/article/view/34 Sun, 01 Dec 2019 00:00:00 -0700 A Correlation between Compaction Characteristics and Soil Index Properties for Fine-grained Soils https://journals.epu.edu.iq/index.php/polytechnic/article/view/57 <p>This paper addresses the correlation between the liquid and/or plastic limits with the compaction characteristics, maximum dry density, and optimum moisture content (OMC), for fine-grained soils. In the previous studies, several attempts have been made to identify these two important parameters from other simple soil properties such as index soil properties. Some concluded that liquid limit shows a good correlation with compaction characteristics, while others observed that plastic limit does. In this work, many soil samples have been taken from various locations around Koya city and the required tests have been carried out. The results have been illustrated to identify whether soil index properties can correlate with the compaction characteristics. It is concluded that neither plastic limit nor liquid limit can provide an adequate correlation with maximum dry density and OMC. Contrary to the literature, liquid limit provides better correlations.</p> Hunar F. Hama Ali, Ahmed J. Hama Rash, Madeh I. Hama kareem, Daban A. Muhedin Copyright (c) 2019 Hunar F. Hama Ali, Ahmed J. Hama Rash, Madeh I. Hamakareem, Daban A. Muhedin https://journals.epu.edu.iq/index.php/polytechnic/article/view/57 Sun, 01 Dec 2019 00:00:00 -0700 Cytotoxic Effects of Vitamin D3 on Tumor Cell Lines https://journals.epu.edu.iq/index.php/polytechnic/article/view/64 <p>Vitamin D<sub>3</sub> is a potent antiproliferative agent against various tumor cells in <em>vitro</em>. Here, the results of Vitamin D<sub>3</sub> study as a potential antitumor therapy in<em> vitro</em> are presented. Applying antiproliferative 3(4,5-dimethyl- 2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-terazolium bromide assays, the inhibitory effects of the Vitamin D were measured. The following cancer cell lines were employed: L20B (normal cell line) and RD (malignant rhabdomyosarcoma). Both cell lines were cultivated in 96-wells culture plates in the presence and absence of different doses of Vitamin D (10–6, 10–8, and 10–10 ?g/ml) for 24 and 48 h. In vitro results of cytotoxic effects were variable on both cell lines, according to dose and exposure time, after 24 h exposure of RD, the highest concentration of Vitamin D3(10<sup>?6</sup> ?g/ml) treatment had significant effect in decreasing cell proliferation from O.D (0.4570 ± 0.0302) to (0.1540 ± 0.0017) as compared with negative control, with increasing concentrations the cytotoxicity is increased directly proportional; thus, the lowest cytotoxic effect was at the lowest concentration of both Vitamin D3 (10<sup>?12</sup> ?g/ml). While after 48 h, the same concentration of Vitamin D<sub>3</sub> shows an increase in proliferation from 0.3710 ± 0.0023 to 0.4597 ± 0.0017 on the RD cell line. While a significant increase in L20B cell proliferation was observed after 24 h treatment at the concentration (10<sup>?6</sup> ?g/ml) from 0.3570 ± 0.0011 to 0.0330 ± 0.0017, when compared with the negative control. However, after 48 h treatment, a significant increases the proliferation of cells as shown from O.D 0.2927 ± 0.0008 to 0.4300 ± 0.0011, respectively. Thus, the present study was aimed to evaluate the antiproliferative property of Vitamin D and its relation to inhibition of cancer cell growth.</p> Twana A. Mustafa, Iman M. Rasul Copyright (c) 2019 Twana A. Mustafa, Iman M. Rasul https://journals.epu.edu.iq/index.php/polytechnic/article/view/64 Sun, 01 Dec 2019 00:00:00 -0700 A Dual-band Planar Antenna for Wireless Local Area Network Applications https://journals.epu.edu.iq/index.php/polytechnic/article/view/72 <p>Wireless local area network (WLAN) communication is one of the fast and secure wireless technologies, which is vastly used in nowadays portable and handheld devices. This paper is oriented on designing of a planar WLAN antenna to serve in WLAN network devices. The designed antennas are single and dual-band planar monopole antennas to be working at IEEE 802.11 WLAN frequencies; 2.45 GHz and 5.2/5.8 GHz bands. Different configurations have been used in the design process, especially for the dual-band antenna, where dual-resonant is required. The antennas have been designed analytically then simulated using the CST software package. Simulation results for the input reflection coefficient, realized gain, and radiation pattern have been considered to evaluate their features. The antennas have also been fabricated practically and practical measurements for the input reflection coefficient and radiation pattern have been taken which shown a good agreement with those of simulation.</p> Yasser A. Fadhel Copyright (c) 2019 Yasser A. Fadhel https://journals.epu.edu.iq/index.php/polytechnic/article/view/72 Sun, 01 Dec 2019 00:00:00 -0700 Assessing of Oil Refinery Plant Residues on Soil Contamination in Kasnazan District – Erbil, Iraqi Kurdistan Region https://journals.epu.edu.iq/index.php/polytechnic/article/view/85 <p>This investigation conducted on April 01, 2015, of the different locations surrounding oil refinery factories near the Kasnazan district on Sulaimani road (Latitude 36.211N, Longitude 44.157E), to assess the effects of oil refinery factory residues on soil contamination. Soil samples were collected towards (E and W) from the contamination source, with various distances (0.5, 1, and 1.5 m) and different depths (0–10, 10–20, and 20–30 cm) consequently. The concentrations of heavy metals such as chromium, iron, manganese, nickel, and zinc were sequentially extracted and measured using portable X-ray fluorescence at the soil and water department laboratories. The heavy metals concentration of the soil samples was significantly affected by both factors (distances and depths). Fe had the highest concentration value as ranged from 486.0 to 520.2 mg/kg with a mean (502.9 mg/kg), while Cr and Zn had the lowest concentration value, Cr ranged from 0.0 to 9.33 mg/kg with a mean (3.22 mg/kg) and Zn ranged from 0.0 to 1.9 mg/kg with a mean (1.43 mg/kg). Mn concentration ranged from 9.6 to 13 mg/kg with a mean (11.55 mg/kg) and Ni concentration ranged from 4.3 to 10.03 mg/kg with a mean (7.40 mg/kg). The geoaccumulation index values of most samples located under the class (1) uncontaminated to moderate index.</p> Ismaeel T. Ahmed , Darseem B. Ismael Copyright (c) 2019 Ismaeel T. Ahmed , Darseem B. Ismael https://journals.epu.edu.iq/index.php/polytechnic/article/view/85 Sun, 01 Dec 2019 00:00:00 -0700 A Mathematical Model for Prediction the Embedment Depth of the Contiguous Piles Used in the Interchange of Zakho Entrance https://journals.epu.edu.iq/index.php/polytechnic/article/view/87 <p>Determination of the depths of the embedment of contiguous piles requires extensive soil investigation to obtain the soil physical parameters. In addition, a large number of such piles involved in restricted access projects make that depth an essential problem. A simple mathematical model for predicting the depth of embedment using the height of the retained soil, the standard penetration test values, and the bulk unit weight of the soils encountered for 261 pile data sets was introduced using an artificial neural network approach. The coefficient of determination equals to 0.99 for the tested the data reveal that the depth of embedment was accurate against those achieved in Zakho interchange. The importance and parametric studies obtained show that the major parameter which affects the depth of embedment was the height of the retained soil whereas the effect of other parameters is relatively less.</p> Najdat S. Akrawi, Shimal A. Ahmed Copyright (c) 2019 Najdat S. Akrawi, Shimal A. Ahmed https://journals.epu.edu.iq/index.php/polytechnic/article/view/87 Tue, 10 Dec 2019 00:00:00 -0700 Estimation of Serum Homeostasis Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance and Lipid Profile in Beta-thalassemia Major Patients and their Correlation with Iron Overload in Koya City https://journals.epu.edu.iq/index.php/polytechnic/article/view/89 <p>The current study focused on 43 patients who suffer from major beta-thalassemia at the hospital of shaheed Dr. Khaled in the Koya city. Out range, age of cases was 8.03 ± 4.0 and of controls was 7.81 ± 3.11 years. Our aim is to observe the prevalence of homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance and other physiological and biochemical changes in major beta-thalassemia. While we a significant changes confirm that serum glucose concentration was significantly higher in the patients than in the controls (P ? 0.01) and lipid abnormality occurs in beta-thalassemia major patients, which include high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), serum total cholesterol (TC), serum triglycerides (TG), and very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) levels compared with normal healthy controls. There was no significant difference between the serum insulin level of cases and controls (P = 0.214), the mean values of serum HDL-C, LDL-C, TC, TG, and VLDL in cases were 29.5 ± 7.8, 65.2 ± 1.9, 121.9 ± 36.7, 182.09 ± 43.1, and 26.47 ± 12.13 mg/dl, respectively. Moreover, the mean values of serum HDL-C, LDL-C, TC, TG, and VLDL in controls were 48.6 ± 4.2, 79.7 ± 14.5, 178.7 ± 14.6, 124.14 ± 12.1, and 23.52 ± 5.47 mg/dl, respectively. In conclusion, the results suggested that revealed that beta-thalassemia patients had hypertriglyceridemia, hypocholesterolemia, and low LDL-C, and HDL-C levels.</p> Kochar K. Saleh, Saman R. Abdullah, Rukhosh E. Mekha Copyright (c) 2019 Kochar k.Saleh, Saman R.Abdullah, Rukhosh E.Mekha https://journals.epu.edu.iq/index.php/polytechnic/article/view/89 Sun, 01 Dec 2019 00:00:00 -0700 Association of Sleep Lack with Blood Pressure and Kidney Functions among Young People in Erbil City https://journals.epu.edu.iq/index.php/polytechnic/article/view/124 <p>Short sleep duration could be deemed a risk factor in occurring cardiovascular system and renal physiological malfunctions. Hence, the present study carried out from December 2018 to January 2019, intended to investigate the association between sleep lack with a circulation system and kidney functions among both genders of students (12 females plus 25 males) who have 18–23 years age and attending Salahaddin University-Erbil. The trial included a sleep lack group (sleep duration &lt;6 h). The second group represented as a control (sleep duration &gt;6 h). Blood pressure (BP) (systolic BP [SBP], diastolic BP [DBP], and mean arterial pressure [MAP]) and weights were estimated for both groups. Blood samples were taken to determine serum creatinine utilizing fully automatically biochemical analyzer and also glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was estimated and calculated according to the Cockcroft-Gault equation. The procured results revealed that SBP was elevated in all participants in the sleep lack group as compared to the control group, while no significant change in DBP was perceived. Furthermore, MAP was increased in all volunteers in the sleep-deprived group. The results also demonstrated that the serum creatinine was raised and concomitantly estimated GFR values were elevated in sleep-deprived group as compared to the control group. Pursuant to the receiver operating characteristic curve, serum creatinine can be a risk factor for sleep lack as well. In the light of the current study, it has been concluded that the sleep lack has a role in elevating SBP but not DBP and it was related with hypertension. Furthermore, the results indicated that serum creatinine was significantly increased in students with sleep lack.</p> Ali Z. Omar, Ismail M. Maulood , Kareem K. Hamad , Hero N. Ali, Shayma B. Bapir , Almas M. Mahmud Copyright (c) 2019 Ali Z. Omar, Ismail M. Maulood , Kareem Kh. Hamad , Hero N. Ali, Shayma B. Bapir , Almas M. Mahmud https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://journals.epu.edu.iq/index.php/polytechnic/article/view/124 Sun, 01 Dec 2019 00:00:00 -0700 Detection of Helicobacterpylori Antigens among Patients with Gastroenteritis in Erbil City, Iraq https://journals.epu.edu.iq/index.php/polytechnic/article/view/161 <p>Helicobacter pylori is a significant pathogen of the gastrointestinal tract infection connected with gastritis, peptic ulcers, and gastric carcinoma. Its infection influence more than half of the world’s inhabitants. This study aims to reveal the prevalence rate of<em> H. pylori</em> infection among patients with gastroenteritis and to investigate the risk factors such as age, gender, residency, blood group and rhesus factors related to this infection in Erbil city. Of 300 stool specimens from patients presenting with gastroenteritis who were admitted to Rizgary Teaching Hospital, Erbil, Iraq, from September 2018 to February 2019 were collected and screened for the presence of H. pylori antigens using rapid immunochromatographic assay (Camp Medica Group, Bucharest, Romania). A questionnaire sheet was prepared and used for each study subject. Of 300 samples examined, <em>H. pylori</em> were detected in 79 samples (26.33%). The highest rate of <em>H. pylori</em> infection was founded among the age group 21–30 years, but there were no significant differences between them (P &gt; 0.05). A significant relationship between <em>H. pylori</em> infection and gender (male 19.05% and female 33.33%) was recorded (P &lt; 0.05). There was a significant association between<em> H. pylori</em> infection and ABO blood group among patients (P &lt; 0.05), but there is no significant association between<em> H. pylori</em> infection and the type of rhesus factor (P &gt; 0.05) that<em> H. pylori</em> infection was higher in rhesus factor negative compared to rhesus factor positive. The prevalence was significantly higher among rural area (55.56%) than urban area (23.44%) (P &lt; 0.05). We concluded that the spread of <em>H. pylori</em> positive rate was high among patients with gastroenteritis in Erbil city. The great prevalence of<em> H. pylori</em> was founded in the patients with O blood group, urban area, and females. There was no significant association between <em>H. pylori</em> infection and age groups and rhesus factor.</p> Pshtewan D. Majeed, karim J. Saleh, Hussein M. Abdullah Copyright (c) 2019 Pshtewan D. Majeed, karim J. Saleh, Hussein M. Abdullah https://journals.epu.edu.iq/index.php/polytechnic/article/view/161 Sun, 01 Dec 2019 00:00:00 -0700 Treatment of Wastewater Disposal from the General Hospital in Tuz Region Using Alum and Bentonite https://journals.epu.edu.iq/index.php/polytechnic/article/view/61 <p>The general hospital in Tuz town in Iraq suffers from the absence of a wastewater treatment plant, in which the disposals of the hospital are discharged directly into the sewerage system. The aim of this study is to use simple and basic methods for treating wastewater from the general hospital in Tuz Town using bentonite clay and alum with different dosages by methods of coagulation, flocculation, and sedimentation using Jar test, to measure the general characteristics of wastewater such as chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD<sub>5</sub>), potential of hydrogen (PH), electrical conductivity (EC), nitrates (NO<sub>3</sub>), phosphates (PO4), hardness, calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), turbidity, chlorides (Cl), and sulfates (SO<sub>4</sub>). The results showed that bentonite clay was more effective than alum in removing pollutants from wastewater. The removal efficient of COD and BOD<sub>5</sub> was 65% and 57%, respectively, at the optimum dosage of bentonite clay, whereas the efficient removal of COD and BOD<sub>5</sub> using alum was 60% and 48%, respectively. Higher efficiency removal of turbidity was 75% for bentonite and 65% for alum; the higher value of efficiency removal was 68% for NO<sub>3</sub> and 60% for PO<sub>4</sub> while the higher efficiency using the treatment with alum was 58% for NO<sub>3</sub> and 49% for PO<sub>4</sub>. The changing in the value of pH was decreased with increasing the dosages of alum, for the first dosage 20 mg/l, the value of PH was 7.1 then it was decreased to reach 6.2 at 120 mg/l, whereas bentonite shows increasing in value of PH to reach 7.6 at dosage of 120 mg/l.</p> Shno M. Ali Copyright (c) 2019 Shno M. Ali https://journals.epu.edu.iq/index.php/polytechnic/article/view/61 Sun, 01 Dec 2019 00:00:00 -0700 Tensile Strength Modeling of Limestone Rocks in Sulaymaniyah City, Iraq Using Simple Tests https://journals.epu.edu.iq/index.php/polytechnic/article/view/58 <p>Tensile strength of rocks is one of the mechanical properties of intact rock that is a significant parameter for designing geotechnical structures includes dam foundations and tunnels. The tensile strength can be determined indirectly using Brazilian indirect test procedure that is mentioned in the International Society for Rock Mechanics suggested methods. The availability of rock samples is needed to perform the Brazilian indirect test so as to determine their tensile strength which is expensive, time-consuming, and cost-effective especially for weak quality rock formations. Therefore, non-destructive methods for predicting the tensile strength of the rock are crucially needed during the poor quality of rock samples. Non-destructive tests can be correlated with indirect tests to predict Brazilian tensile strength (BTS) of rocks such as ultrasonic pulse velocity and Schmidt hammer. These methods are simple and can be easily conducted in the field. This study is focused on the tensile strength of limestone rocks for three main formations of Sulaymaniyah city. The samples were obtained using a standard core barrel. Statistical analysis including minimum, maximum, mean, standard deviation, variance, and coefficient of variance for the results was conducted. Single and multiple correlations between BTS and each of ultrasonic pulse velocity and Schmidt hammer rebound number of limestone rocks were created. Reasonable empirical equations were developed to predict the tensile strength of limestone rocks. In addition, the point load strength index was correlated with BTS. The comparison between proposed equations from this study and equation from the literature was also investigated.</p> Diyari A. Mohammed, Younis M. Alshkane Copyright (c) 2019 Diyari A. Mohammed, Younis M. Alshkane https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://journals.epu.edu.iq/index.php/polytechnic/article/view/58 Sun, 01 Dec 2019 00:00:00 -0700 Synthesis of Zinc Sulfide Nanoparticles by Chemical Coprecipitation Method and its Bactericidal Activity Application https://journals.epu.edu.iq/index.php/polytechnic/article/view/253 <p>A particle of zinc sulfide (ZnS) was synthesized by the chemical coprecipitation method using zinc sulfate heptahydrate (ZnSO<sub>4</sub>), ammonium sulfate (NH<sub>4</sub>)<sub>2</sub>SO<sub>4</sub> as a reactant, and thiourea as a stabilizer and capping agent. The optioned product characterized by electron dispersive X-ray spectroscopy that exhibits the presence of Zn and S elements. The average particle size of the ZnS nanoparticles determined using X-ray diffraction is about 4.9 nm. The ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy showed the blue shift in wavelength and the band gap was 4.33 eV, the surface morphology of the synthesized ZnS nanoparticles powder was studied by scan electron microscopy which was showed the irregular and some spherical shapes of ZnS in a nanosized range. The Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy observed an absorption peck at 657.73 and 613.36 cm<sup>?1</sup> that were assigned to the stretching mods of the Zn-S band. The different amounts of ZnS nanoparticle were applied as bactericidal against <em>Staphylococcus</em> aureus by disk diffusion method. It displayed activity against S. <em>aureus bacteria</em>, which was carried out in the absence of irradiation.</p> Razhan S. Othman, Rebaz A. Omar, Karzan A. Omar, Aqeel I. Gheni, Rekar Q. Ahmad, Sheyma M. Salih, Avan N. Hassan Copyright (c) 2019 Razhan S. Othman, Rebaz A. Omar , Karzan A. Omar, Aqeel I. Gheni https://journals.epu.edu.iq/index.php/polytechnic/article/view/253 Sun, 01 Dec 2019 00:00:00 -0700 Review of Seismic Characteristics in Erbil City, the Capital of the Kurdistan Region of Iraq https://journals.epu.edu.iq/index.php/polytechnic/article/view/145 <p>Erbil city essentially suffers from the risk of earthquakes generated by Zagros-Taurus Belt. The central objective of this study is to identify the seismic characteristics and required seismic parameters for structural analysis. The methodology concentrated on reviewing the seismology and geology of Erbil city. It was concluded that the tectonically classified by an outer platform of the low folded zone in the position of Western Zagros Fold-Thrust Belt of the Arabian plate, geologically covered by Quaternary sediments and lithologically described by fluvial sediments, and the dynamic soil properties classified by site Class D. Seismicity review indicated that the seismic source is characterized by strike-slip (normal) fault and majority events exhibit at the shallow crustal with expected moment magnitude between 6 and 7.5. It was observed that the peak ground acceleration (PGA) has been updated, especially after the last cyclic earthquake in the region. The summary of the previous seismic hazard indicates that the PGA according to the World Health Organization, Global Seismic Hazard Assessment Program, and Uniform building code is identified by the value higher than 0.3 g for 475 years return period, while according to national probabilistic seismic hazard analysis studies in Iraq and Arabian Peninsula is identified by 0.4 g for 2% probability of exceedance in 50 years (2475 years return period), and estimated PGA to be 0.25 g for 10% likelihood of exceedance in 50 years (475 years return period), in a term of 5% damped at bedrock condition. Proposed spectral acceleration (Sa) in Erbil city at 0.2 and 1.0 s evaluated to be 1.0 g and 0.53 g, for the site Class D and compared with Sa in the literature.</p> Zina A. AbdulJaleel, Bahman O. Taha Copyright (c) 2019 Zina A. AbdulJaleel, Bahman O. Taha https://journals.epu.edu.iq/index.php/polytechnic/article/view/145 Sun, 01 Dec 2019 00:00:00 -0700