The impact of "3C" factors on making pricing decision to achieve company’s objectives:

A study of the opinions of a sample of industrial companies' managers and specialized academics/Erbil


  • Hazim H. Mohammed Department of Accounting, Erbil Salahaddin University, Erbil, Kurdistan Region – Iraq
  • Zhelan A. Sadeq Department of Accounting, Salahaddin University, Erbil, Kurdistan Region – Iraq



—(3C), Making pricing decision, company’s objectives.


(3C) factors are cost, customer and competition that have an effect on company's objective through making pricing decision. The goal of this research is to highlight the estimation of the different causes that has an influence on pricing decision and how well a company can handle these factors effectively to achieve goals of the company. The main research problem is represented; “Does the "3C" factors have an impact on making pricing decision to achieve of company’s objectives?” The researchers used the analytical approach methods (SPSS and Easy Fit) to analyze the questionnaire form through distributing (148) questionnaires to industrial companies (managers, Vic managers and division managers) and academics (economic & administrative collage) in Erbil city. Following the analysis, the researchers came to the conclusion that the (3C) explain 69.1% (coefficient of determination) of the changes in making pricing decisions and explains 60.4% of the changes in making pricing decisions in order to achieve the study's objectives and test its hypotheses. (Coefficient of determination) of the changes in company’s objective, (that mean (3C) have a significant effect on making pricing decision to achieve company's objectives. The most important result of the research is the “3C” factors have great influences on making pricing decision to achieve goals of company"


Download data is not yet available.


Al-Mamun, A. & Rahman, M., (2014), " A Critical Review of Consumers’ Sensitivity to Price: Managerial & Theoretical Issues", Journal of International Business & Economics, 2(2), pp.1-9.

Alzlzly, K., (2019), "Target Cost and its Role in Cost Reduction and Product Development (And Applied in Engineering Industrial Companies)", Jour of Adv Research in Dynamical & Control Systems, 11 (Special Issue), pp.287-297.

Amaral, J. & Guerreiro, R. (2019), "Factors explaining a cost-based pricing essence", Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, Vol. 34 No. 8, pp. 1850-1865.

Ayozie, D.O. (2008), “The Role of Small Scale Industry in National Development in Nigeria”, ICAN Students’ Journal, Jan/March, 12(1), pp.10-17.

Bang, V. & Joshi, S., (2008), "Conceptualization of Market Expansion Strategies in Developing Economies", Academy of Marketing Science Review, 12(4), pp.1-26.

Cant, M., Wiid, J. & Sephapo, C., (2016), " Key factors influencing pricing strategies for small business enterprises (SMEs): Are the important?", Journal of Applied Business Research, 32(6), pp.

Chambers, S., (2020), "The Importance of Customers Loyality",

Coller, G. & Collini, P., (2014), “The value of cost accuracy in full-cost pricing decisions”, Conference Paper, available at:

Datar, S. & Rajan, M., (2018), " Horngren’s Cost Accounting: A Managerial emphasis", 16th edition, Pearson Education, Inc, USA.

Edwards, W. & Duffym P., (2014), "Encyclopedia of Agriculture and Food Systems", Academic Press, pp. 100-112.

Fareed, Z., Ali, Z., Shahzad, F., Nazir, M. & Ullah, H., (2016), "Determinants of profitability: evidence from power and energy sector", STUDIA UBB OECONOMICA, 61(3), pp.59-78.

Foxall, G., (2008), "The Logic of Price Decision-Making", Management Decision, 18(5), pp.235-245.

Hansen, D. & Mowen, M., (2006), "Cost Management: Accounting and Control"m 5th Edition, Thomson South-Western, Canada.

Hefer, J., (2013), "Priniple of cost accounting", Oxford University Press Southern Africa.

Hilton, R.W. (2005), “Managerial Accounting: Creating Value in a Dynamic Business Environment”, McGraw Hill New York.

Ignou, (2020), "Cost Accounting", Indira Gandhi National Open University, New Dilhi.

Jayathilaka, A., (2020), "Operating Profit and Net Profit: Measurements of Profitability", University of Sri Jayewardenepuna, Gangodawila, Nugegoda, Sri Lank, 7 (e7011), pp1-11.

Kim, A., Khanh, H. & Van, H., (2018), “Factors influencing the cost-based pricing method: the empirical study of Vietnamese feed mills”, Article in Economic Annals-XXl 171 (5-6), pp.29-37.

Lanen, W., Anderson, S. & Maher, M., (2021), "Fundamentals of Cost Accounting", 10th edution, McGraw-Hill Irwin Education, USA.

Listra, E., (2015), "The concept of competition and the objectives of competitors", Social and Behavioral Sciences 213, pp.25–30.

Margaretham F. & Supartika, N., (2016), "Factors Affecting Profitability of Small Medium Enterprises (SMEs) Firm Listed in Indonesia Stock Exchange", Journal of Economics, Business and Management, 4 (2), pp.132-137.

Mizani, N., Sheikh, R., Gholami, A. & Sana, S., (2018), "Attracting and Retaining Customers by AxiomaticDesign and Incomplete Rough-Set Theory", Int. J. Appl. Comput. Math, pp.2-17.

Mohammed, H. (2021), "The role of using strategic profitability analysis in maximizing shareholders value in economic units", Palarch’s Journal of Archaeology of Egypt/Egyptology 18(4), pp. 5122-5140.

Mohammed, H., 2020, "Integration between indicators of throughput accounting and balanced scorecard in enhancing the competitive advantage in economic units", PhD. dissertation unpublication, Economic & Administration Collage, Salahaddin University.

Monroe, K.B. (2003), “Pricing- Making Profitable Decisions”, 3rd Edition McGraw Hill/ Irwin, New York.

Ndyamukama, G. & Machibya, M., (2015), “Pricing strategies and customer Retention”, master thesis unpublished in International Business, Tampere University of Applied Sciences.

Olawale, L., & Joel, O., (2017), “Factors Influencing Pricing Decision: Evidence from Non-Financial Firms in Nigeria”, Acta Universitatis Danubius. Economica, 13(1), pp.157-172.

Onyonkam, L., (2013), "Expansion Strategies and Performance of Commercial Banks in Kenya", Unpublished thesis, MSc. in Administration, School of Busniess, University of Nairobi.

Petrovskaya, D., (2014), "How to Attract New Customers. Case: La Fiaba", Thesis degree Programme in International Business, Faculty of Business Administration, Lappeenrant.

Rahman, R. & Safeena, P., (2016), "Customer Needs and Customer Satisfaction", Training manual on theeranaipunya-equipping fisherwomen youth for future.

Rajan, S. & Cholasseri, A., (2019), "Strategic cost accounting", School of Distance Education, University of Calicut.

Rajendra, G. & Sinha, M., (2020), "Impact of Analytics on Pricing Decisions", Psychology & Education, 57(9), pp.4260-4268.

Remenova, K. & Kintler, J., (2020), "How a pricing decisions are decided and executed", SHS Web of Conferences 83(5), pp.1-6.

Robinson, G. & Lundstrom, W., (2003), "Market expansion strategy: development of a conceptual market expansion decision scorecard", Briefings in Enterpreneurial Finance, 12(5), pp. 259-272.

Schiefer, C., (2013), “Role of competitive intelligence in strategic purchasing decisions and its influence on suppliers’ resource allocation”, master thesis unpublished, University of Twente, Nürtingen.

Smith, G., Ferrier, J. & Ndofor, H., (2001), "Competitive dynamics research: Critique and future directions", Handbook of strategic management, pp.315-36 (

Tangus, D. & Omar, N., (2017), "Effects of Market Expansion Strategies on Performance of Commercial Banks in Mombasa Country", International Journal of Economics, Business and Management Research, 1(02), pp. 39-50.

The inistitue of Company Seccretaries, (2013), "Cost & Management Accounting", module1, part1, Indiea.

Toni, D., Milan, G., Saciloto, E. & Larentis, F., (2017), "Pricing strategies and levels and their impact on corporate profitability", Revista de Administração, 52(2017), pp.120-133.

Torkinlampi, E., (2018), "Customer Loyality in Business", Thesis in Business Management, Centria University of Applied Sciences.

Wilson, N. & Christella, R., (2019), " An Empirical Research of Factors Affecting Customer Satisfaction: A Case of the Indonesian E-Commerce Industry", DeReMa Jurnal Manajemen, 14(1), pp.21-40.

Yaskal, I. & Melnyk, O., (2013), "Theoretical approaches to concepts of “competition” and “competitiveness”", E.coforum, 2(2), pp.8-12.

Yifan, R. & Xirui, H., (2020), "Research on the Market Expansion Strategy of Tourism Enterprises under the Background of Big Data", Advances in Economics, Business and Management Research, 155, pp.258-261.

Zelga, K., (2017), "The importance of competition and enterprise competitiveness", World Scientific News 72, pp.301-306.



How to Cite

Mohammed, H. H. ., & Sadeq, Z. A. (2022). The impact of "3C" factors on making pricing decision to achieve company’s objectives: : A study of the opinions of a sample of industrial companies’ managers and specialized academics/Erbil. Polytechnic Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, 3(1), 112-128.



Research Articles